251: J Ethnopharmacol  1980 Mar;2(1):19-22


Traditional medicine in health care.


Sayed MD.


The state of research on plants used in traditional medicine and its development in Egypt is indicated by the number of scientific institutions devoted to this problem: Universities, the National Research Centre, the Desert Institute and the Horticulture Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, the use of certain medicinal plants has been "industrialised', e.g., Ammi visnaga, Cymbopogon proximus, Nigella sativa and Aloe vera. Other plants are under investigation: Urginea maritima, Phytolacca americana and Euphorbia sp. (known for its claimed antitumour properties), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cynara scolymus and Solanum laciniatum.






252: Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd  1980 Mar;176(3):469-71


[The effect of the sap of Euphorbiaceae on the eye]

[Article in German]


Lisch K.


Ocular inflammations caused by the latex of euphorbiaceae manifest themselves as lid swelling, severe conjunctivitis, keratitis and iritis with hypopyon. As therapy, the local application of corticosteroids is recommended. In severely affected cases intravenous injections of Sandosten-Calcium and Solu-Dacortin (Merck) are indicated. The caustic effect of euphorbia cyparissias is caused by phorbol acid and phorbol acid ester. On the Canary Islands, the latex of euphorbiaceae is quickly removed by drop application of the sap of aeonium lindleyi, family crassulaceae. In the past, the sap of sempervivum tectorum which also belongs to the crassulaceae, was used as a household remedy for ocular inflammations.






253: Planta Med  1980 Feb;38(2):151-4


Screening of euphorbia from Azarbaijan for skin irritant activity and for diterpenes.


Upadhyay RR, Bakhtavar F, Mohseni H, Sater AM, Saleh N, Tafazuli A, Dizaji FN,

Mohaddes G.






254: Toxicon  1980;18(2):165-74


Inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosporylation by 4-deoxyphorbol triester, a poisonous constituent of the latex sap of Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.


Noack EA, Crea AE, Falsone G.






255: Experientia  1979 Oct 15;35(10):1328-9


Gibberellins and the break of bud dormancy in virus-infected stem cuttings of Euphorbia pulcherrima.


Nath S, Mandahar CL, Gulati A.


Break in bud dormancy in virus-infected stem cuttings of Euphorbia pulcherrima occurs because of the higher quantity of gibberellins present in them than in healthy cuttings in the dormant period of the plant.






256: Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh)  1979 Sep;45(3):181-91


The succulent euphorbias of Nigeria. III. Structure and potency of the aromatic

ester diterpenes of Euphorbia poissonii Pax.


Evans FJ, Schmidt RJ.


The latex of Euphorbia poissonii was found to contain irritant aromatic diterpene esters based upon resiniferonol, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol and 12-deoxyphorbol. Four resiniferonol esters, 9,13,14-ortho-phenylacetyl-resiniferonol-20-0-[p-hydroxy-phenylacetate]; 9,13,14-orthophenylacetyl-resiniferonol-20-0-[m-methoxy-m'-hydroxy-phenylacetate ]; 9,13,14-orthophenylacetyl-resiniferonol-20-0-acetate and resiniferonol-14-0-phenylacetate-20-0-[m-methoxy-m'-hydroxy-phenylacetate], were identified. Two further esters were identified as 12-deoxy-16-0-[2-methylbutyroyl]-phorbol-13-0-phenylacetate-20-0-acetate and 12-deoxy-16-0-[2-methylbutyroyl]-phorbol-13-0-phenylacetate. These compounds represent the first aromatic esters of this parent diterpene to be obtained from natural sources. The third group of compounds were identified as 12-deoxyphorbol-13-0-[p-hydroxy-phenylacetate]-20-0-acetate; 12-deoxyphorbol-13-0-[p-acetoxy-phenylacetate]-20-0-acetate; 12-deoxyphorbol-13-0-phenylacetate-20-0-acetate and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-0-phenylacetate. The irritant potency of the ten pure compounds was obtained using a mouse ear method for assessment of the irritant dose 50%.






257: Planta Med  1979 Jun;36(2):189-90


Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. VII. Further investigation of the flavonoids of Euphorbia paralias L.


Rizk AM, Ahmed SS, Diab MA.






258: Experientia  1979 May 15;35(5):599-600


Specific inhibition of formation of acid-fastness in mycobacteria by 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid.


Kondo Y, Toida T, Kusano G, Imai J.


3,3'-Di-O-methylellagic acid obtained from Euphorbia adenochlora selectively inhibited the formation of acid-fastness in mycobacteria without retardation of their growth. Gross reductions in contents of wax D, cord factor and free mycolic acids were found in the nonacid-fast bacilli compared with the normal ones.






259: Farm Zh  1979 May-Jun;(3):28-34


[Antibacterial activity of preparations from the spurges, Euphorbia seguieriana Neck., E. virgultosa Klok. and E. semivilliosa Prokh.]

[Article in Ukrainian]


Sobolieva VO, Honcharov OI.






260: Planta Med  1979 Feb;35(2):193-4


Chemical investigation of local plants. part II. triterpenoids of Euphorbia wallichii Hk.f.


Rishi AK, George V, Kapoor R.






261: Am J Dis Child  1979 Jan;133(1):28-9


Dermatitis after exposure to a garden plant (Euphorbia myrsinites).


Spoerke DG, Temple AR.


Six pediatric cases of erythematous papulovescicular skin eruptions were due to exposure to Euphorbia myrsinites. These rashes may be confused with allergies, infections, or other dermatoses. Symptoms followed two to eight hours after exposure to the irritant sap, they increased in severity for an additional 12 hours, and they resolved within three to four days. No sequelae were noticed. Treatment indicated was pain relief, prevention of infection, and reduction of swelling.






262: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1979;14(2):91-5


[Studies on the active principles of Ze-Qi (Euphorbia helioscopia L.), a drug used for chronic bronchitis (I) (author's transl)]

[Article in Chinese]


Ghen Y, Tang ZJ, Jiang FX, Zhang XX, Lao AN.






263: J Nat Prod  1979 Jan-Feb;42(1):112-5


Characterization of an irritant 4-deoxyphorbol diester from Euphorbia tirucalli.


Kinghorn AD.


Latex of Euphorbia tirucalli, collected in Colombia, yielded 12-O-2Z-4E-octadienoyl-4-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate (1), which exhibited an irritant potency equivalent to that of the standard irritant, phorbol-12-tetradecanoate-13-acetate, in a mouse ear test system. The unsaturated 4-deoxyphorbol diesters recently reported in E. tirucalli grown in South Africa were not observed in the present study.






264: Rev Bras Pesqui Med Biol  1978 Dec;11(6):345-51


[Molluscicidal properties of the Euphorbia cotinifolia L (author's transl)]

[Article in Portuguese]


Pereira JP, de Souza CP, Mendes NM.


The hexanic extract from the leaves of Euphorbia cotinifolia L. has been experimentally used as molluscicide against Biomphalaria glabrata. The extract was fractionated and the most actives fractions were those of numbers 6 and 7. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 obtained using fraction 6 against adult snails were 1,2 and 2,4 ppm; for the eggs they were 25,0 and 48,0 ppm. With fraction 7 the lethal concentrations were 1,4 and 3,4 ppm for adult snails; for newly hatched snails they were 4,8 and 8,0 ppm; for the eggs they were 13,0 and 31,0 ppm. In the field the hexanic extract was lethal for the snails in concentrations of 20 ppm in stagnant water. Fractions 6 and 7 were lethal for S. mansoni cercariae and to fish (Lebistes reticulatus) in concentrations below 10 ppm. For mice the extract did not display any toxity in concentrations of 600 mg/kg.






265: Zentralbl Bakteriol [Orig A]  1978 Nov;242(1):93-9


A comparative study of antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.


Staib F, Folkens U, Tompak B, Abel T, Thiel D.


The strikingly frequent and constant presence of Aspergillus fimigatus in the soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic and epidemiological angles. Culture-filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus strains isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (Epiphyllum truncatum), orange tree (Citrus sinensis), Alpine rose (Azalea indica) and Christmas flower (Euphorbia pulcherrima), were compared, in the immunodiffusion test, with antigens of A. fumigatus strains from aspergillosis patients prepared in an identical way. When tested against 8 different sera from different aspergillosis patients there was a good coincidence of results. Control sera from patients suffering from diseases other than aspergillosis, no false-positive reactions could be observed. The findings are discussed in respect of diagnosis and epidemiology.






266: Pharmazie  1978 Aug;33(8):540-1


Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. Part 6: phytochemical investigation of Euphorbia geniculata Jacq. and E. prostrata Ait.


Rizk AM, Hammouda FM, El-Nasr MM, El-Missiry MM.






267: Tumori  1978 Feb 28;64(1):99-102


Cocarcinogenic and irritant factors of Euphorbia esula L. latex.


Upadhyay RR, Bakhtavar F, Ghaisarzadeh M, Tilabi J.


The latex of (Euphorbia esula) has been found to contain highly skin irritant and inflammatory ingenol-3delta 2,4,6,8,10 pentene tetradecanoate and another factor, ingenol-3-dodecanoate, which is less irritating but which can be responsible for the cocarcinogenic activity exhibited by the latex preparation in the mice back skin experiment.






268: Farm Zh  1978;(2):89-91


[Comparative study of herbal infusions of the spurges, Euphorbia seguieriana, E. virgata and E. semivillosa, obtained by different methods]


[Article in Ukrainian]


Soboleva VO, Chagovets RK, Solon'ko VM.






269: Lloydia  1978 Jan-Feb;41(1):73-5


A note on the isolation and identification of two pharmacologically active constituents of Euphorbia pilulifera.


el-Naggar L, Beal JL, Parks LM, Salman KN, Patil P.






270: Toxicon  1978;16(1):51-7


The irritant toxins of Blue Euphorbia (Euphorbia coerulescens Haw).


Evans FJ.






271: Experientia  1977 Sep 15;33(9):1197-8


Candletoxins A and B, 2 new aromatic esters of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol, from the irritant latex of Euphoria poisonii Pax.


Schmidt RJ, Evans FJ.


2 new aromatic esters of 12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-phorbol, known as candletoxins A and B, were isolated from the irritant latex of Euphorbia poisonii Pax. Compound A was identified as 12-deoxy-phorbol-13-O-phenylacetate-16-O-alpha-methyl-butyrate-20-acetate, and compound B was the C-20 desacetyl analogue.






272: Planta Med  1977 Sep;32(2):177-80


Constituents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae IV investigation of Euphorbia indica.


Rizk AM, Rimpler H.






273: Experientia  1977 Aug 15;33(8):986-8


New highly irritant euphorbia factors from latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L.


Furstenberger G, Hecker E.


From the latex of Euphorbia tirucalli L. growing in Madagascar, 5 new euphorbia factors were isolated. They were characterized as 13-O-acetyl-12-O-acylphorbol- and 12-O-acetyl-13-O-acylphorbol derivatives carrying homologous conjugated unsaturated fatty acids as acyl groups. Furthermore, 2 mixtures of homologous 3-O-acylingenol derivatives are obtained carrying the same type of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to their highly unsaturated acyl groups all Euphorbia factors or factor groups isolated are highly sensitive to autoxidation.






274: Planta Med  1977 Aug;32(1):1-8


Triterpenes in latex of Euphorbia pulcherrima.


Baas WJ.






275: Pharmazie  1977 Aug-Sep;32(8-9):538


Flavonoids of Euphorbia geniculata and Euphorbia prostata.


Ismail SI, el-Missiry MM, Hammouda FM, Rizk AM.






276: Pharmazie  1977 Aug-Sep;32(8-9):534-5


Crystalline principles of Euphorbia terracina L.


Khafagy SM, Salam NA, Mohamed YA, Mahmoud ZF.






277: Anaesth Intensive Care  1977 Feb;5(1):30-5


Historical note: Drumine--a new Australian local anaesthetic.


Bailey RJ.


An article in the Australiasian Medical Gazette of October, 1886 indicates the method of extraction, experimentation and therapeutic application of an active principle, prepared from Euphorbia Drummondii. Further correspondence is noted, refining the method of extraction, reporting cases, answering criticisms, and announcing eventually, drumine's commercial preparation. Despite enthusiastic support, the drug soon disappears from the therapeutic scene.






278: Planta Med  1976 Oct;30(2):196-7


Irritant constituents of Iranian plants. Ingenol from Euphorbia seguieriana.


Upadhyay RR, Zarintan MH, Ansarin M.






279: Experientia  1976 Sep 15;32(9):1196-7


Tumor promoting constituent of Euphorbia serrata L. latex.


Upadhyay RR, Ansarin M, Zarintan MH, Shakui P.


Euphorbia serrata latex has initially ingenol-3-palmitate, which by action of silica gel is converted to ingenol-20-palmitate. The former is responsible for the irritant and cocarcinogenic activity of the latex on mouse ear and on mice back skin.






280: Planta Med  1976 Aug;30(1):32-4


Isolation of ingenol from the irritant and cocarcinogenic latex of Euphorbia seguieriana.


Upadhyay RR, Zarintan MH, Ansarin M.






281: Med J Aust  1976 Jun 12;1(24):928


Home treatment of basal cell carcinoma.


Weedon D, Chick J.


The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is not uncommonly used as a home treatment for warts and basal cell carcinomas. This report documents its successful use on a biopsy-proven basal cell carcinoma.






282: Pharmazie  1976 Jun;31(6):405


Constitutents of Egyptian Euphorbiaceae. Part 2: Flavonoids of Euphorbia paralias.


Rizk AM, Youssef AM, Diab MA, Salem HM.






283: Planta Med  1976 May;29(3):301-4


Phytochemical study of Euphorbia paralias.


Khafagy SM, Gharbo SA, Abdel Salam NA.






284: J Protozool  1976 May;23(2):238-41


Axenic cultivation of Phytomonas davidi Lafont (Trypanosomatidae), a symbiote of laticiferous plants (Euphorbiaceae).


Mcghee RB, Postell FJ.


Phytomonas davidi (Trypanosomatidae) originally discovered by Lafont in 1909 on the island of Mauritius was rediscovered in Euphorbia cyathophora in Florida. Successful cultures were established in diphasic medium consisting of duck blood agar and modified Phillips' medium as overlay. Optimal growth was obtained when Mansour's medium was used as overlay and poorest growth when Cowperthwaite's medium buffered at pH 5.0 was utilized for this purpose. Marked changes tending toward choanomastigotes rather than the elongate twisted promastigotes were observed in cultures.






285: Dtsch Med Wochenschr  1976 Apr 9;101(15):567-70


[Occupational allergy due to inhalation of pollen from Euphorbia fulgens Karw (author's transl)]


[Article in German]


Hausen BM, Ketels-Harken H, Schulz KH.


The increased cultivation and sales of Euphorbia fulgens Karw., originating in Mexico, has in the last few years led to occupational allergy, type I, in three growers manifesting itself as nasal disease, tracheobronchitis or bronchial asthma. Intracutaneous tests with pollen extracts were positive in all cases, even at high dilution. A specific hyposensitisation regimen, conducted over five months, gave highly promising results in one patient who had no symptoms in the following season, despite similar exposure. Such sensitisation by pollens of Euphorbia fulgens Karw. is probably widespread among growers and florists. The allergen is found only in the pollen, not in other parts of the plant. There is no relation to the toxic substances in the milk-sap of this plant family (Euphorbiaceae).






286: Science  1976 Feb 13;191(4227):571-2


Antileukemic principles isolated from euphorbiaceae plants.


Kupchan SM, Uchida I, Branfman AR, Dailey RG Jr, Fei BY.


Extracts of Euphorbia esula L. and Croton tiglium L., two members of the Euphorbiaceae which have been used widely in folk medicine for treating cancers, showed antileukemic activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice. Systematic fractionation of the extract of Euphorbia esula L. led to characterization of a major antileukemic component as the new diterpenoid diester, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate. Similar fractionation of Croton oil led to characterization of phorbol 12-tiglate 13-decanoate as an active principle.






287: J Ultrastruct Res  1976 Jan;54(1):53-8


Protein bodies in the nucellus of Euphorbia helioscopia.


Gori P.






288: Planta Med  1975 Dec;28(4):326-35


A biological screen of selected species of the genus Euphorbia for skin irritant effects.


Kinghorn AD, Evans FJ.






289: Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol  1975 Nov 25;84(3):325-44


On the active principles of the spurge family. III. Skin irritant and cocarcinogenic factors from the caper spurge.


Adolf W, Hecker E.


The toxic and irritant principles of the seed oil and of the latex of the caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L.) were isolated together with several non irritants of similar chemical structure. From the seed oil two irritant Euphorbia factors L5 and L6 and from the latex a mixture of irritant Euphorbia factors were obtained. Euphorbia factor L5 was identified as 3-hexadecanoate of the new tetracyclic, poly-functional diterpene parent alcohol ingenol. Euphorbia factor L6 most probably is the 3-tetradeca-2,4,6,8,10-penta-enoic acid ester of ingenol. The mixture of Euphorbia factors was shown to contain esters of ingenol and of 16-hydroxy-ingenol, respectively, each containing a long chain unsaturated fatty acid, most probably in 3-position. The non irritants from the seed oil comprise ingenol-20-hexadecanoate (compound L4) and several esters of macrocyclic diterpenes of the new lathyrol type (compounds L1-L3, L8, and possibly L7). Compound L4 is a positional isomer of Euphorbia factor L5 and most probably an artefact formed during the isolation procedure. The macrocyclic diterpenes are of interest as possible intermediates in the biogenesis of tetracyclic diterpene parents of cocarcinogenic esters. The parent alcohols ingenol and 16-hydroxy-ingenol are inactive irritants. As compared to croton oil factor A1 (TPA), Euphorbia factor L5 exhibits about 1/10 of its irritant activity on the ear and about 1/10 of its cocarcinogenic activity on the back skin of mice. As an irritant Euphorbia factor L6 shows about 1/5 of the activity of A1. Structure/activity relationships of ingenol and phorbol esters and the possible role of cocarcinogens of plant origin as second order carcinogenic risk factors are discussed.






290: Planta Med  1975 Jun;27(4):387-94


Phytochemical study of Euphorbia peplus.


Khafagy SM, Gharbo SA, Salam NA.






291: Planta Med  1975 Jun;27(4):301-3


[Flavonol glycosides from Euphorbia helioscopia, E. stricta, E. verrucosa and E.

dulcis (author's transl)]

[Article in German]


Pohl R, Janistyn B, Nahrstedt A.






292: Pharmazie  1975 Jun;30(6):402-3


Spectrophotometric estimation of individual flavone glycosides in three Euphorbia species.


Abdel-Salam NA, El-Sayed M, Khafagy SM.


Two spectrophotometric methods (conventional and differential) are carried out for the estimation of flavone glycosides (hyperoside and/or kaempferol-3-beta-glucoside) in Euphorbia paralias L., and Euphorbia helioscopia L. The glycosides are extracted with methanol from the aerial parts of the different Euphorbia species, separated on silica gel chromatoplates, and eluted by refluxing with methanol (80%). The absorbance value (conventional method) and the delta absorbance value (differential method) of the prepared glycosidal solutions are measured. The results of both methods are of conveinent reproducibility.






293: J Pharm Pharmacol  1975 May;27(5):329-33


Skin irritants of Euphorbia fortissima.


Kinghorn AD, Evans FJ.


By means of a combination of partition and chromatographic methods six irritant constituents were isolated from the fresh latex of Euphorbia fortissima. Compounds A-D were di-esters of the common parent diterpene 12-deoxyphorbol, and compounds E and F were mono-esters of the same diterpene. The fresh latex had an irritant dose 50% (ID50) on mice of 0-64 mug mul- minus 1. Compounds A-D are short-acting irritants reaching a maximum activity within 4 h of application to the skin, whilst the monoesters maintained potent irritant effects for up to 24 h. Selective hydrolysis of the di-esters at the C-20 primary ester group also produced mono-esters of greater potency after 24 h. An increase in the length of the fatty acid located at C-13 produced greater biological activity in both the mono- and di-ester groups.






294: Acta Pol Pharm  1975;32(6):703-8


[Quercetin derivatives of Euphorbia lucida W.K]

[Article in Polish]


Burzanska Z.






295: Contact Dermatitis  1975;1(2):128


Petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus L.).


Calnan CD.


St. John's Hospital, London, Great Britain.






296: Planta Med  1974 Sep;26(2):190-2


[Flavonol-glycosides from Euphorbia sequieriana (author's transl)]

[Article in German]


Pohl R, Janistyn B.






297: Z Naturforsch [C]  1974 Sep-Oct;29C(9-10):529-31


Constituents of Egyptian euphorbiaceae. I. Triterpenoids and related substances of Euphorbia paralias.


Rizk AM, Youssef AM, Diab MA, Salem HM.






298: Sov J Ecol  1974 Jul;4(5):373-9


Leafless euphorbia on Rajasthan rock.


Sen DN, Chawan DD.






299: Acta Pharm Suec  1974 May;11(2):185-90


Chemical examination of Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss.


Aynehchi Y, Kiumehr N.






300: Planta Med  1974 Feb;25(1):98-9


[On the presence of Rhamnetine in the genus Euphorbia. A correction (author's


[Article in German]


Janistyn B, Nahrstedt A, Pohl R.




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