151: Farmaco  1994 Mar;49(3):167-74


Constituents of euphorbiaceae 12. Comm. (1). Isolation and structure elucidation of four new cerebrosides from Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf.


Falsone G, Cateni F, Visintin G, Lucchini V, Wagner H, Seligmann O.


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste.


Four new cerebrosides 4-6 were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia biglandulosa Desf. and their structures determined. Normal and reverse-phase flash chromatography was effective for the isolation of the cerebrosides, and FAB-MS spectrometry, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DQF-COSY and HMQC experiments and chemical reactions were useful in elucidating their structure. EI-MS of the dimethyl disulfide derivatives of the long chain bases and glucosphingoside-heptaacetates was decisive for the determination of the double bond position on the long chain parts.






152: Mol Phylogenet Evol  1994 Mar;3(1):27-37


Molecular phylogeny of families related to Celastrales based on rbcL 5' flanking sequences.


Savolainen V, Manen JF, Douzery E, Spichiger R.


Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Geneva, Switzerland.


The region between the rbcL and atpB chloroplast genes and the first 53 codons of the rbcL gene have been sequenced for 19 species of angiosperms. Nine of these belong to the four largest families within the order Celastrales sensu Cronquist (i.e., Aquifoliaceae s.l., Icacinaceae, Celastraceae, and Hippocrateaceae). Both phenetic and cladistic approaches were used to test the monophyly of the order and to specify its relationships with Euphorbiaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceaea. Based upon this molecular analysis, the order Celastrales is polyphyletic and is divided into two major clades. The first group, containing Aquifoliaceae s.l. and Icacina, is related to Camellia (Theaceae). The second, containing Euonymus (Celastraceae), Hippocratea, and Salacia (Hippocrateaceae), is related to Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae).






153: Biomed Environ Sci  1994 Mar;7(1):50-5


Screening of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen expression inducers from Chinese medicinal herbs and plants.


Zeng Y, Zhong JM, Ye SQ, Ni ZY, Miao XQ, Mo YK, Li ZL.


Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing.


Ether extracts of 1693 Chinese medicinal herbs and plants from 268 families were studied for the induction of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) early antigen (EA) expression in the Raji cell line. Fifty-two from 18 families were found to have inducing activity. Twenty-five and seven of them were from Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaeeae, respectively. Some of them, such as Croton tiglium, Euphorbia kansui, Daphne genkwa, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Wikstroemia indica, Prunus mandshurica Koehne and Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used drugs. The significance of these herbs in the activation of EBV in vivo and their relation to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were discussed.






154: Life Sci  1994;55(5):389-97


Resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb.


Eldershaw TP, Colquhoun EQ, Bennett KL, Dora KA, Clark MG.


Department of Biochemistry, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.


The naturally occurring capsaicin-like molecules, resiniferatoxin (RTX, Euphorbia spp.) and piperine (Piper nigrum), each stimulated oxygen uptake (VO2) in association with increased vascular resistance in a concentration-dependent manner when infused into the perfused rat hindlimb. 5 microM glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, a nitrovasodilator) significantly blocked the oxygen and pressure responses to both RTX and piperine, indicating a close relationship between changes in VO2 and the vasoconstriction. Concentrations greater than those required for maximal VO2 resulted in an inhibition of VO2, although perfusion pressure continued to increase. Time course studies showed that both RTX and piperine at high doses resulted in a tri-phasic response. An initial phase of transient VO2 stimulation was followed by a second phase of inhibition. A third phase involving an often larger but transient stimulation of VO2 followed removal of the agents and continued after the pressure returned to basal. The actions of RTX and piperine were similar to those of other active capsaicin-like molecules tested previously in this system, including capsaicinoids (Capsicum spp.), gingerols (Zingiber officinale), and shogoals (Zingiber officinale). RTX was the most potent, and piperine the least potent of this series. Although receptor involvement has yet to be unequivocally established, the data are consistent with the presence of a functional capsaicin-like (vanilloid) receptor in the vasculature of the rat hindlimb that mediates vasoconstriction and oxygen uptake. These findings may have implications for the future development of thermogenic agents.






155: Eye  1994;8 ( Pt 6):696-8


Euphorbia lathyris latex keratoconjunctivitis.


Antcliff RJ, Hodgkins PR, Bowman R, Keast-Butler J.


Publication Types: Letter






156: Eye  1994;8 ( Pt 6):694-6


Acute kerato-uveitis associated with topical self-administration of the sap of the Petty Spurge (Euphorbia peplus)


Eke T.






157: Biochem Biophys Res Commun  1993 Dec 15;197(2):778-84


Regio- and stereoselectivity of cytochrome P-450 and peroxygenase-dependent formation of cis-12,13-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolic acid) in Euphorbia lagascae.


Blee E, Stahl U, Schuber F, Stymne S.


Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes (CNRS UPR 406), DECM, Strasbourg, France.


Two oxygenases associated with microsomes prepared from Euphorbia lagascae developing seeds were found to convert linoleic acid into cis-12,13-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (vernolate): a cytochrome P-450 and a peroxygenase. The cytochrome P-450 dependent epoxidation is characterized by a remarkable regio- and enantioselectivity, i.e. only the 12(S),13(R)-enantiomer is formed in the endosperm. In germinating seeds, peroxygenase was active but no cytochrome P-450 epoxidase could be detected. Moreover, because of the very high enantioselectivity of the fatty acid epoxide hydrolase, which is also found in these tissues and which preferentially hydrates the 12(R),13(S)-epoxide enantiomer, 12(S),13(R)-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid is the only isomer which can accumulate in E. lagascae.






158: Physiol Behav  1993 Dec;54(6):1191-4


Feeding behavior of grazing ruminants experiencing stress.


Kronberg SL, Walker JW, Fitzgerald JA.


USDA-ARS, U.S. Sheep Experimental Station, Dubois, ID 84323.


The mechanisms underlying diet selection of ruminants are less studied than those for monogastrics. However, recent studies have shown that these mechanisms may be more similar in ruminants and monogastrics than previously believed. Food aversion learning is observed in both monogastrics and ruminants, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appears to be involved in avoidance learning. Using leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), an introduced weed whose expansion has costly ecological and economic implications in western North America, as a model for underconsumed plant species, we hypothesized that sheep experience increased cortisol levels when they first consume leafy spurge and that this may be related to their reluctance to graze it. We also hypothesized that preexposure to leafy spurge would attenuate the development of a spurge-based aversion. Correspondingly, we hypothesized that preexposed sheep would not experience increased blood cortisol levels with leafy spurge gavage during an aversion trial. None of our hypotheses were disproved by the experiments. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that stress is required for the development of conditioned taste aversions and extend it to ruminants. We suggest that activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is integral to food aversion learning in ruminants.






159: Br J Cancer  1993 Dec;68(6):1232-5


Are plant factors a missing link in the evolution of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma?


van den Bosch C, Griffin BE, Kazembe P, Dziweni C, Kadzamira L.


Department of Virology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.


Burkitt's lymphoma, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma is endemic in an area of Africa known as the Lymphoma Belt. This zone is demarcated by climatic requirements of temperature and rainfall. EBV-activating plant factors are among several co-factors which have been proposed for the development of epidemic Burkitt's Lymphoma (eBL). The distribution of Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant which possesses EBV-activating substances and can induce the characteristic 8:14 translocation of eBL in EBV-infected lymphoblastic cell lines in vitro, conforms closely to the climatic requirements of the Lymphoma. This plant, other EBV-activating plants and plants of unknown EBV-activating status with medicinal uses, are found significantly more often at the homes of eBL patients in Malawi than in those of controls. The possible role of these plant factors in the pathogenesis of eBL and their routes of bodily access are discussed. It is postulated that the associations described in this paper provide support for the theory that EBV-activating plants are co-factors involved in the pathogenesis of some cases of eBL.






160: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1993 Dec;13(12):730-2, 709


[Treatment of upper respiratory infection with mixt. 716 compound]

[Article in Chinese]


Luo H.


Jiangxi Children's Hospital, Nanchang.


Mixt. 716 is composed of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, including Oldenlandia diffusa, Euphorbia humifusa, Onychium japonicum, Acalypha australis. 150 cases of upper respiratory infection were divided into 716 treatment group (89 cases) and control group (61 cases) randomly. The effective rate was 92% in treatment group compared with 67% in control group. Experimental studies also showed that Mixt. 716 was slightly cytotoxic, it could obviously inhibit influenza virus A.






161: Planta Med  1993 Oct;59(5):472-3


Biologically active compounds from the Euphorbiaceae; Part 1. Triterpenoids of Euphorbia nicaeensis subsp. glareosa.


Oksuz S, Shieh HL, Pezzuto JM, Ozhatay N, Cordell GA.






162: Biochim Biophys Acta  1993 Aug 20;1158(1):33-9


Purification and partial characterization of a mitogenic lectin from the latex of Euphorbia marginata.


Stirpe F, Licastro F, Morini MC, Parente A, Savino G, Abbondanza A, Bolognesi A, Falasca AI, Rossi CA.


Dipartimento di Patologia sperimentale, Universita di Bologna, Italy.


A lectin was purified from the latex of Euphorbia marginata by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 6B and elution with lactose. The lectin is a glycoprotein composed of two identical subunits with M(r) 30,000, approx. The haemagglutinating activity of the lectin is not specific for any human blood group, and is inhibited by galactose and galactose-containing sugars and by gentiobiose. The lectin is strongly mitogenic for human T-lymphocytes and induces the release of interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from cultured mononuclear cells.






163: Planta Med  1993 Aug;59(4):333-6


Antidiarrhoeic activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent.


Galvez J, Zarzuelo A, Crespo ME, Lorente MD, Ocete MA, Jimenez J.


Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada, Spain.


The antidiarrhoeic activity of the Euphorbia hirta whole plant was investigated. The lyophilized decoction demonstrated antidiarrhoeic activity in experimental models of diarrhoea induced by castor oil, arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin E2. It showed no activity when magnesium sulphate was used to provoke the diarrhoea. The lyophilized decoction delayed small intestinal transit when this was accelerated by castor oil but not in normal conditions. A flavonoid, quercitrin, with antidiarrhoeic activity was isolated from this crude drug.






164: J Ethnopharmacol  1993 Aug;39(3):209-12


A skin irritant principle from Euphorbia matabelensis Pax.


Gundidza M, Sorg B, Hecker E.


Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare.


A diterpene of the ingenane-type parent alcohol with tetradecanoic acid as the acid substituent was isolated by chromatographic methods from the latex of Euphorbia matabelensis. The ingenol ester exhibited irritant activity on the mouse ear.






165: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1993 Aug;18(8):458-9, 509


[Determination of esculetin in semen Euphorbiae lathyridis L. by TLCS and comparison on the quality in different areas]

[Article in Chinese]


Li ZG, Sun XG, Zhou KF, Lei LC, Zhai YJ.


Henan Institute for Drug Control, Zhengzhou.


A TLC-densitometric method for the determination of oesculetin in Semen Euphorbia lathyridis (Euphorbiae lathyrdis) was established, and esculetin content in Semen Euphorbia lathyridis from three different producing areas (Zhengzhou, Chengdu and Chongqing) was determined. The method is accurate, sensitive and simple. The recovery is 98.63% and the coefficient of variation is 1.59% (n = 5). The esculetin average contents in the three samples are 0.3013%, 0.2046% and 0.2094% respectively.






166: Arch Biochem Biophys  1993 May 15;303(1):145-51


Biosynthesis of vernoleate (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoate) in microsomal preparations from developing endosperm of Euphorbia lagascae.


Bafor M, Smith MA, Jonsson L, Stobart K, Stymne S.


Department of Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.


Epoxidated fatty acids are the major constituents of the triacylglycerols in a few plant species. We have investigated the biosynthesis of vernolic acid (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid) in the seed oil of Euphorbia lagascae. Microsomes were isolated from developing endosperm. The membrane lipids were labeled in situ with [14C]oleate or [14C]linoleate, which mainly were recovered in phosphatidylcholine (PC), and the metabolization of the radioactive fatty acids was followed in incubations with or without NADPH. In the presence of NADPH, [14C]vernoleate was formed. After short incubations, most of the vernolic acid was found in PC, but with increasing incubation times, the free acid dominated. The synthesis of vernoleate was inhibited by carbon monoxide, but not by cyanide. The presence of anticytochrome b5 antibodies inhibited both the desaturation of [14C]oleate to [14C]linoleate and the epoxidation of [14C]linoleate to [14C]vernoleate. Free linoleic acid did not serve as substrate for epoxidation. The results indicate that, in the endosperm of E. lagascae, vernoleate is synthesized on PC from linoleate, and that the epoxidation is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 and involves cytochrome b5.






167: Biotech Histochem  1993 May;68(3):159-60


A soap technique for cell separation to study the seed coat of Sesbania punicea.


Bevilacqua L, Massa G, Modenesi P, Fossati F.


Hanbury Institute of Botany, University of Genoa, Italy.


A technique is described for separating plant cells used for morphological studies. The plant material is placed in a concentrated solution of olive oil castile soap for 1-2 days or more. The material is then thoroughly washed and placed between two glass slides. The upper glass slide is lifted from the lower one, then gently pressed down several times. Through this procedure Malpighian cells of the seed coat of Sesbania punicea, mesophyll cells of Euphorbia peplus and of Trifolium pratense and cortical cells of the aerial roots of Monstera deliciosa have been separated. Various shapes of the Malpighian cells of the Sesbania punicea seed coat can be observed along with intermediates.






168: Cent Afr J Med  1993 Mar;39(3):56-60


Skin irritant and tumour promoting extract from the latex of Euphorbia bougheii.


Gundidza M, Kufa A.


Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare.


A crude ethylacetate extract was isolated from Euphorbia bougheii by a combination of solvent-solvent and chromatographic methods. The extract exhibited significant skin irritant activity on the mouse ear as well as a tumour promoting activity on the mouse back skin. This indicates that the use of this plant as a medicine must be discouraged since the latex extract causes cancer.






169: Ophthalmologe  1993 Feb;90(1):58-61


[Eye burns caused by wolf's milk]

[Article in German]


Frohn A, Frohn C, Steuhl KP, Thiel HJ.


Universitats-Augenklinik Tubingen.


If the sap of Euphorbia inadvertently gets in the eye, it can cause conjunctivitis, keratitis or iritis. Therapy consists of rinsing, antibiotics, steroids and mydriatics when the anterior chamber is inflamed. It may also be necessary to protect the damaged eye from light, because photoallergic reactions are possible.






170: J Pharm Pharmacol  1993 Feb;45(2):157-9


Antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin in mice and rats.


Galvez J, Crespo ME, Jimenez J, Suarez A, Zarzuelo A.


Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Spain.


Quercitrin, a flavonoid isolated from Euphorbia hirta, shows antidiarrhoeic activity at doses of 50 mg kg-1, against castor oil- and PGE2-induced diarrhoea in mice, but not when magnesium sulphate is used as a cathartic agent. It also delays rat small intestinal transit if this is accelerated with castor oil. However, the flavonoid does not modify the fluid transport across the colonic mucosa when it is administered intraluminally, either in normal conditions or when this transport is altered by PGE2 or sodium picosulphate. However, quercetin, the aglycone of quercitrin, increases the colonic fluid absorption only in the presence of secretagogue compounds, such as PGE2 and sodium picosulphate. It is concluded that the antidiarrhoeic activity of quercitrin is due to its aglycone, quercetin, which is released by the glycoside in the intestine.






171: Acta Biol Hung  1993;44(4):433-43


Functional connection between intracellular and extracellular secretion in species of Euphorbia genus.


Toth-Soma LT, Gulyas S, Szegletes Z.


Department of Botany, Jozsef Attila University, Szeged, Hungary.


In species of the Euphorbia genus the intracellular latex-secretion and the extracellular nectar-secretion are anatomically connected. The functional connection of the secretional systems was proved to be probable by TLC and GC-MSD. The chemical composition of Euphorbia latex and honey was examined with these analytical methods. In our research, the comparative chemical analysis of the latex and the honey of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia cyparissias L., Euphorbia seguieriana Necker.) was discharged. These species are unusually good melliferous plants in Hungary. Four chemical components that can be found both in the latex and in the honey were detected with ultraviolet light (254 nm), and three general alkaloid reagents (Dragendorff, Meyer and 1% Ce(SO4)2 in 2n H2SO4) were detected by TLC. By means of mass spectrum generated by GC-MSD, the following compounds of Euphorbia honey were identified: butyl-2-methylpropylphtalat, hexadecane acid, diheptyl phtalat, bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) phtalat, benzenedicarboxylic acid decyl-hexyl ester, benzenedicarboxylic acid isodecyl-octyl ester. The first compounds can also be found in the latex of both examined Euphorbia species. This partial correspondence in the composition of the latex and the honey led to results that suggest a further, functional connection between the two, anatomically connected secretional systems.






172: Cent Afr J Med  1992 Dec;38(12):444-7


A skin irritant phorbol ester from Euphorbia cooperi N E Br.


Gundidza M, Sorg B, Hecker E.


Department of Pharmacy University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare.


From the fresh latex of Euphorbia cooperi N E Br was isolated by partition and chromatographic methods, a diterpene ester 12-deoxyphorbol-16-isobutyrate-13-tigliate. The phorbol ester exhibited highly irritant activity on the mouse ear. Since skin irritancy is an indication of possible tumour promotion, the use of this plant as a medicine should be discouraged.






173: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1992 Sep;54(2):185-99


Characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and demonstration of glycosomes in a Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias.


Sanchez-Moreno M, Lasztity D, Coppens I, Opperdoes FR.


Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, International Institute of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium.


Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias was adapted to SDM-79 medium. Cells isolated in the early stationary phase of growth were analyzed for their capacity to utilize plant carbohydrates for their energy requirements. The cellulose-degrading enzymes amylase, amylomaltase, invertase, carboxymethylcellulase, and the pectin-degrading enzymes polygalacturonase and oligo-D-galactosiduronate lyase were present in Phytomonas sp. and were all, except for amylomaltase, excreted into the external medium. Glucose, fructose and mannose served as the major energy substrates. Catabolism of carbohydrates occurred mainly via aerobic glycolysis according to the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, of which all the enzymes were detected. Likewise, the end-products of glycolysis, acetate and pyruvate, glycerol, succinate and ethanol were detected in the culture medium, as were the enzymes responsible for their production. Mitochondria were incapable of oxidizing succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, malate and proline, but had a high capacity to oxidize glycerol 3-phosphate. This oxidation was completely inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid. No cytochromes could be detected either in intact mitochondria or in sub-mitochondrial particles. Mitochondrial respiration was not inhibited by antimycin, azide or cyanide. The glycolytic enzymes, from hexokinase to phosphoglycerate kinase, and the enzymes glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, malate dehydrogenase and adenylate kinase, were all associated with glycosomes that had a buoyant density of about 1.24 g cm-1 in sucrose. Cytochemical staining revealed the presence of catalase in these organelles. The cytosolic enzyme pyruvate kinase was activated by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, typical of all other pyruvate kinases from Kinetoplastida. The energy metabolism of the plant parasite Phytomonas sp. isolated from E. characias resembled that of the bloodstream form of the mammalian parasite Trypanosoma brucei.






174: Planta Med  1992 Jun;58(3):255-8


Stimulatory effects of ingenols from Euphorbia kansui on the expression of macrophage Fc receptor.


Matsumoto T, Cyong JC, Yamada H.


Oriental Medicine Research Center, Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan.


Immune complex binding to macrophages was enhanced by treatment with an E. kansui extract. Systematic fractionation of the extract led to the characterization of 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)- and 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutyryl)-13- O-n-dodecanoyl-13-hydroxyingenol as the active principles. Immune complex binding to macrophages by the action of these compounds increased in a dose-dependent manner. When each ingenol (10 nM) was added to the separated culture medium, the immune complex binding ability of macrophages increased up to 2-fold, respectively. Scatchard analysis showed the enhanced expression of the Fc-receptor for gamma-globulin by the action of each ingenol to macrophages. This Fc-receptor upregulation was dependent on RNA synthesis, suggesting a possible de novo synthesis.






175: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo  1992 May-Jun;34(3):183-91


Evaluation of temporal, seasonal and geographic stability of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens latex.


Schall VT, de Vasconcellos MC, Villaca-Coelho AL, Ferreira-Lopes FE, da Silva IP.


Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


Laboratory tests with aqueous solutions of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex have demonstrated seasonal stability of the molluscacidal principle, with LD90 values of 1.14 ppm (spring), 1.02 ppm (fall), 1.09 ppm (winter), and 1.07 ppm (summer) that have been determined against Biomphalaria tenagophila in the field. Assays on latex collected in Belo Horizonte and Recife yielded LD90 values similar to those obtained with the reference substance collected in Rio de Janeiro (Ilha do Governador), demonstrating geographic stability of the molluscacidal effect. The molluscacidal action of aqueous dilutions of the latex in natura, centrifuged (precipitate) and lyophilized, was stable for up to 124 days at room temperature (in natura) and for up to 736 days in a common refrigerator at 10 to 12 degrees C (lyophilized product). A 5.0 ppm solution is 100% lethal for snails up to 13 days after preparation, the effect being gradually lost to almost total inactivity by the 30th day. This observation indicated that the active principle is instable. These properties together with the wide distribution of the plant, its resistance and adaptation to the tropical climate, its easy cultivation and the easy obtention of latex and preparation of the molluscicidal solution, make this a promising material for large-scale use in the control of schistosomiasis.






176: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1992 Apr;17(4):225-6, 255-6


[Constituents of tannins from Euphorbia prostrata Ait.]

[Article in Chinese]


Chen L, Chen R, Wei K.


Fujian Institute of TCM, Fuzhou.


Ten compounds have been isolated from Euphorbia prostrata and identified as gallic acid, corilagin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose,geraniin,tellimagradin I, II, rugosin A, rugosin E, rugosin D and rugosin G on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.






177: Lancet  1992 Feb 15;339(8790):434

Comment on:  Lancet. 1991 May 18;337(8751):1190.


Euphorbia species.


Abdalla SH.






178: C R Acad Sci III  1992;314(8):337-42


[Purification of lipase from latex of Euphorbia characias by an extraction method with apolar solvent]

 [Article in French]


Moulin A, Giordani R, Teissere M, Pieroni G.


Centre de Biochimie et de Biologie moleculaire, C.N.R.S., Marseille.


A lipase from the latex of Euphorbia characias was purified using a new method involving extraction by apolar solvent and adsorption chromatography on silica. The lipase (specific activity 1,500 IU/mg of protein) was eluted from silica complexed with a lipid. The main proteic fraction, showing a molecular weight of 38,000, was inactive when dissociated from the lipid fraction. It was necessary to reassociate the lipid and proteic fractions for 72% of the lipolytic activity to be recovered.






179: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1992;27(6):445-51


[Triterpene constituents from Euphorbia nematocypha Hand-Mazz]

[Article in Chinese]


Cao D, Su YL, Yang JS.


Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.


Seven triterpenoids have been isolated from the roots of Euphorbia nematocypha Hand-Mazz. through chromatography on 20% AgNO3-silica gel. One of them was identified as a new compound named nematocyphol on the basis of spectral data (IR, EIMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Its structure was deduced as IVa. Other compounds were identified as nepehinol acetate (I), germanicol acetate (II), euphol (III), tanaxastanol (Va), 24-methylenecycloartanol (VIa) and nepehinol (VIIa). These compounds were obtained for the first time from this plant.






180: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1992 Jan-Mar;87(1):21-3


Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (N. E. B.) (Euphorbiaceae)--1. Experimental test in a lentic habitat.


Mendes NM, Baptista DF, de Vasconcellos MC, Schall VT.


Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou-FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.


The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.






181: Planta Med  1991 Dec;57(6):531-5


Activity on the CNS of crude extracts and of some diterpenoids isolated from Euphorbia calyptrata suspended cultures.


Speroni E, Coletti B, Minghetti A, Perellino NC, Guicciardi A, Vincieri FF.


Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bologna, Italy.


Crude methanolic extracts from both root and cell cultures of Euphorbia calyptrata were investigated and found to be active on the CNS. An active fraction was isolated from the methanolic extract of suspension cultures; this possesses significant depressant activity on the CNS. When compared with the crude methanolic root extract, this fraction showed the presence of some common products, four of which were isolated and characterized as helioscopinolides A, C, D, and E. The pure products, administered intraperitoneally to mice, showed different activities on the CNS. Helioscopinolide C showed a clear depressant activity, helioscopinolide E a mild, short depressant effect, while helioscopinolides A and D had an opposite excitatory effect.






182: J Ethnopharmacol  1991 Sep;34(2-3):235-46


Use of an Amoeba proteus model for in vitro cytotoxicity testing in phytochemical research. Application to Euphorbia hirta extracts.


Duez P, Livaditis A, Guissou PI, Sawadogo M, Hanocq M.


Unite de Chimie Bioanalytique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.


Amoeba proteus is proposed as a low-cost multi-purpose biochemical tool for screening and standardizing cytotoxic plant extracts with possible application in the laboratories of developing countries. Advantages and limitations of this test are examined and different mathematical treatments (probit analysis versus curve fitting to Von Bertalanffy and Hill functions) are investigated. Known anti-cancer (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dacarbazine, 5-fluorouracil) and antiparasitic (emetine, dehydroemetine, metronidazole, cucurbitine, chloroquine) drugs were tested using this method and only metronidazole appeared inactive. Application of this model to Euphorbia hirta established that a 100 degrees C aqueous extraction of fresh aerial parts allows efficient extraction of active constituents and that drying the plant material before extraction considerably reduces activity.






183: Planta Med  1991 Jun;57(3):225-31


Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta.


Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Dorfman P, Mortier F, Pelt JM.


Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Universite de Metz, France.


Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in mice and rats, in order to complete its activity profile, after the confirmation of the existence of a central depressant activity particularly expressed by a strong sedative effect, associated with anxiolytic effects. This study leads us to the conclusion that this plant extract exerts central analgesic properties. Such a dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, from the doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg and it was inhibited by a naloxone pretreatment, a specific morphinic antagonist compound. An antipyretic activity was obtained at the sedative doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg, on the yeast-induced hyperthermia. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were observed on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats) from the dose of 100 mg/kg. On the other hand, plant extract remained inactive on chronic processes such as Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, after a chronic treatment during fourteen days at the daily dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg; however, if inefficacy was observed on rat backpaws edema and on loss of weight, the aqueous extract reduced the inflammatory hyperalgia.






184: Lancet  1991 May 18;337(8751):1190

Comment in:  Lancet. 1992 Feb 15;339(8790):434.


Chromosome translocation and c-MYC activation by Epstein-Barr virus and Euphorbia tirucalli in B lymphocytes.


Aya T, Kinoshita T, Imai S, Koizumi S, Mizuno F, Osato T, Satoh C, Oikawa T, Kuzumaki N, Ohigashi H, et al.


Department of Virology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.


Dual exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and purified 4-deoxyphorbol ester derived from the plant Euphorbia tirucalli induced a high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements in human B lymphocytes in vitro. Rearrangements most commonly affected chromosome 8, the chromosome most often showing structural changes in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells. E tirucalli is indigenous in parts of Africa where BL is endemic and may be an important risk factor for the disease.






185: J Nat Prod  1991 May-Jun;54(3):823-9


Antitumor agents, 119. Kansuiphorins A and B, two novel antileukemic diterpene esters from Euphorbia kansui.


Wu TS, Lin YM, Haruna M, Pan DJ, Shingu T, Chen YP, Hsu HY, Nakano T, Lee KH.


Natural Products Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599.


The extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui, which has been widely used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, demonstrated antileukemic activity against the P-388 lymphocytic leukemia in mice. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active extract led to the isolation and characterization of two novel antileukemic diterpene esters, kansuiphorin A [1] [13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-dodecanoate- 20- hexadecanoate] and kansuiphorin B [2] [6,7-epoxy-13-hydroxyingenol-3-(2,3-dimethylbutanoate)-13-do decanoate-20- hexadecanoate], whose structures were established from spectral evidence and chemical transformation. Kansuiphorins A and B demonstrated potent antileukemic activity with T/C greater than or equal to 176 and 177% at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. The selectivity of kansuiphorin A, which inhibits the growth of particular cell types within the disease-oriented human cancer cell line panels, is discussed.






186: Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1991 Feb;11(2):79-82, 67


[Clinical and experimental study on the treatment of children diarrhea by granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping]

[Article in Chinese]


Li YL.


Henan College of TCM, Zhengzhou.


Granule of children-diarrhea fast-stopping is a proved recipe composed of seven medical herbs such as Poria cocos, haw charcoal, Euphorbia humifusa, etc. After more 20 years' clinical application of 419 cases, the total effective rate proved to be 96.4% and the cure rate 90%, much better than the control groups [TCM: gelian san and shenglingbaizhu san; WM: gentamycin and PPA]. It had the effect of fast-stopping diarrhea and shortening the recovery period. It also had excellent curative effect for acute and chronic diarrhea, for noninfective and infective diarrhea with virus or germs, and for the diarrhea due to moist heat and spleen weakness in TCM. Clinical tests and experiments showed that this medicine had no toxic or side effects. The diarrhea-cure mechanisms were (1) Inhibiting germs so as to eliminate pathogeny. (2) Adjusting and improving organism immunity function. (3) Accelerating the recovery of intestinal digestion and absorption functions. (4) Inhibiting intestinal movement.






187: Contact Dermatitis  1991 Feb;24(2):155-6


Irritant contact dermatitis from Euphorbia marginata.


Urushibata O, Kase K.


Department of Dermatology, Ohashi Hospital, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.






188: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1991 Jan;16(1):38-9, 64


[Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L.]

[Article in Chinese]


Chen L.


Fujian Institute of TCM, Fuzhou.


Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.






189: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1991;86 Suppl 2:87-8


Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye.


Freitas JC, Presgrave OA, Fingola FF, Menezes MA, Vasconcellos MC, Schall VT,

Paumgartten FJ.


Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saude, Departamento de Farmacologia e Toxicologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not preclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for handling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potential should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.






190: Braz J Med Biol Res  1991;24(6):573-82


Evaluation of the genotoxic activity and acute toxicity of Euphorbia splendens latex, a molluscicide for the control of schistosomiasis.


Schall VT, Vasconcellos MC, Valent GU, Sato MI, Furlan EV, Sanchez PS.


Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


1. The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii has a molluscicidal action at low concentration (LD90 less than 1.5 ppm or 1.5 micrograms/ml) against the vector snails of schistosomiasis.

2. In the present study, the latex in natura or after lyophilization was submitted to the Ames test and the chromotest to evaluate genotoxicity, to the Microtox System to determine acute toxicity, and to the Chinese hamster ovary cell assay (CHO) to measure cytotoxicity.

3. The latex had no mutagenic activity in the presence or absence of S9 toward the TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) at concentrations up to 200 microliters/plate (in natura) and of 200 micrograms/plate (lyophilized). The lyophilized latex had no genotoxic activity (Chromotest) and no acute toxic effect on Photobacterium phosphoreum at concentrations up to 445 micrograms/ml, whereas the sample in natura had a toxic effect with an EC50 of 148,000 microliters/l (or ppm). In the CHO/cytotoxicity assay, the lyophilized latex had no cytotoxic effect in quantities up to 200 micrograms.

4. The latex was found to have no acute toxicity or mutagenic activity at the concentrations of 10 to 12 micrograms/ml (or ppm) that are being proposed for molluscicidal use in the field.






191: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)  1990 Aug;38(8):2201-3


Hepatoprotective compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha.


Ito M, Shimura H, Watanabe N, Tamai M, Hanada K, Takahashi A, Tanaka Y, Arai K, Zhang PL, Chang R, et al.


Research Center, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Saitama, Japan.


Successive purification of the extract from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha, guided by antihepatotoxic activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, led to the isolation of brevifolin (1), hyperin (2), ellagic acid (3) and 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (4) as hepatoprotective compounds. Compounds 1,3 and 4 also reduced carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in mice. The hepatoprotective activities of 1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro and in vivo are apparently due to their antioxidative effects, which were exhibited by further studies using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation systems.






192: J Ethnopharmacol  1990 Jul;29(3):291-4


Topical antiinflammatory effects of Euphorbia prostrata on carrageenan-induced footpad oedema in mice.


Singla AK, Pathak K.


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.


The ethyl acetate extract and a fraction, KSE-23, isolated chromatographically from the ethyl acetate extract of Euphorbia prostrata, showed significant antiinflammatory activity when topically applied in a murine model of carrageenan footpad oedema. KSE-23 was found to be more potent than  indomethacin given in the same manner.






193: J Ethnopharmacol  1990 May;29(2):189-98


Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta L.: sedative and anxiolytic properties.


Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Cabalion P, Rolland A, Dorfman P, Misslin R, Pelt JM.


Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Universite de Metz, France.


Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for behavioral effects in mice. The extract did not induce any toxic effect when it was administered i.p. and orally. Sedative properties could be confirmed with high doses (100 mg of dried plant/kg, and more), by a decrease of behavioral parameters measured in non-familiar environment tests (activitest and staircase test), whereas anticonflict effects appeared at lower doses (12.5 and 25 mg of dried plant/kg), by an enhancement of behavioral parameters measured in the staircase test and in the light/dark choice situation test. These findings validate the traditional use of E. hirta as a sedative and reveal original anxiolytic properties.






194: Neuroscience  1990;37(2):531-9


Similarities and differences in the action of resiniferatoxin and capsaicin on central and peripheral endings of primary sensory neurons.


Maggi CA, Patacchini R, Tramontana M, Amann R, Giuliani S, Santicioli P.


Pharmacology Department, A. Menarini Pharmaceuticals, Florence, Italy.


We have compared the ability of capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, a natural diterpene present in the latex of plants of the Euphorbia family to excite and desensitize capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in a variety of models. Both capsaicin and resiniferatoxin inhibited the twitch contractions of the rat isolated vas deferens and prevented, in a concentration-related manner, the effect of a subsequent challenge with 1 microM capsaicin (desensitization). Resiniferatoxin was 1000-10,000 times more potent than capsaicin in both cases. The time course of action of resiniferatoxin was much slower than that of capsaicin, suggesting a slower penetration rate in the tissue. The action of resiniferatoxin was blocked by Ruthenium Red, a proposed antagonist at the cation channel coupled to the capsaicin receptor. Both capsaicin and resiniferatoxin produced a contraction of the rat isolated urinary bladder. Resiniferatoxin was about as potent as capsaicin in this assay although it was 500-1000 times more potent than capsaicin in desensitizing the primary afferents to a subsequent challenge with capsaicin itself. Resiniferatoxin did not affect motility in the isolated vasa deferentia or urinary bladder from capsaicin-pretreated rats. After topical application onto the rat urinary bladder both resiniferatoxin (10 nM) and capsaicin (10 microM) increased bladder capacity as assessed in a volume-evoked micturition reflex model in rats without affecting micturition contraction. Intrarterial injection of resiniferatoxin or capsaicin in the ear of anesthetized rabbits evoked a systemic depressor reflex due to activation of paravascular nociceptors, resiniferatoxin being about three times more potent than capsaicin. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)







195: J Ethnopharmacol  1989 Nov;27(1-2):55-61


Anti-inflammatory studies on Euphorbia prostrata.


Singla AK, Pathak K.


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.


Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted in rats on an ethanol extract of whole plant Euphorbia prostrata and its partitioned fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction in an oral dose of 200 mg/kg, inhibited 76% of acute carrageenan-induced paw edema. A fraction, labelled as KSE-23, isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction inhibited 57% of pedal edema at a dose of 8 mg/kg. Acute inflammatory studies of fractions using histamine and bradykinin-induced pedal edema indicated a selective inhibition of histamine-induced edema, suggesting suppression of the first phase of the acute inflammatory reaction.






196: Planta Med  1989 Jun;55(3):271-2


An antitumor principle from Euphorbia lathyris.


Itokawa H, Ichihara Y, Watanabe K, Takeya K.


The extract of seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L. showed antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 ascites in mice. Systematic fractionation of the extract led to the characterization of ingenol-3-hexadecanoate as an active principle, together with an inactive diterpene ingenol-20-hexadecanoate.






197: Life Sci  1989;44(11):711-5


Thermoregulatory effects of resiniferatoxin in the mouse: comparison with capsaicin.


de Vries DJ, Blumberg PM.


Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.


Resiniferatoxin, an extremely irritant diterpene present in several members of the genus Euphorbia, produced an 8 C decrease in the rectal temperature of mice with an effective dose in the range of 2-20 micrograms/kg. The structurally related natural product capsaicin produced a similar magnitude of fall in body temperature, albeit with 1000-fold lower potency. Tolerance to the hypothermic effects of both compounds readily developed and cross-tolerance between the compounds was observed. The extreme potency of resiniferatoxin should facilitate biochemical analysis of the mechanism of action of this class of compounds.






198: Neuroscience  1989;30(2):515-20


Resiniferatoxin, a phorbol-related diterpene, acts as an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, the irritant constituent in red pepper.


Szallasi A, Blumberg PM.


Molecular Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion Section, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.


Resiniferatoxin is an extremely irritant diterpene present in the latex of several members of the genus Euphorbia. Its mechanism of action has been shown to be clearly distinct from that of the structurally related phorbol esters. Since resiniferatoxin possesses a 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl substituent, a key feature of capsaicin, the major pungent ingredient of plants of the genus Capsicum, we examined the ability of resiniferatoxin to induce typical capsaicin responses. We report here that treatment of rats with resiniferatoxin, like treatment with capsaicin, caused hypothermia, neurogenic inflammation, and pain. These responses were followed by loss of thermoregulation, by desensitization to neurogenic inflammation, and by chemical and thermal analgesia, with cross-tolerance between resiniferatoxin and capsaicin. Resiniferatoxin was 3 4 orders of magnitude more potent than capsaicin for the effects on thermoregulation and neurogenic inflammation. Resiniferatoxin was only comparable in potency to capsaicin, however, in the assay for induction of acute pain, and the desensitization to acute pain appeared to require less resiniferatoxin than did desensitization for the other responses. We conclude that resiniferatoxin acts as an ultrapotent capsaicin analog and hypothesize that it may distinguish between subclasses of capsaicin response.






199: Cytobios  1989;59(238-239):151-8


Comparative study of the surface charge of some isolates of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas.


Vommaro RC, Attias M, de Souza W.


Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


The surface charge of different isolates of Phytomonas from Euphorbia hyssopifolia, Euphorbia pinea, Euphorbia characias and Manihot esculenta was analysed by the binding of cationic particles (colloidal iron hydroxide at pH 1.8 and cationized ferritin at pH 7.2) to the protozoan surface and by determination of the cell electrophoretic mobility (EPM). All the isolates had a net negative surface charge, and the isolate from E. hyssopifolia manifested the greatest negative charge. A good relationship between the electrophoretic mobility data and the density of the cationic particles on the parasite's surface, as seen in ultrathin sections, was observed. Neuraminidase treatment did not significantly reduce the mean EPM of the parasites analysed.






200: Afr J Med Med Sci  1988 Dec;17(4):227-30


Screening extracts of Euphorbia garuana N.E.Br. for in-vitro cytotoxicity.


Abo KA.


Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.


Two biological assays utilising in-vitro uptake of 3H-thymidine into TLX/5 lymphoma and rat basophilic leukaemia cells have been used for rapid detection and subsequent isolation of active compounds from the latex of Euphorbia garuana (Euphorbiaceae). Two potent esters were characterized from the latex of E. garuana reportedly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain forms of cancer.




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