101: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1997 Sep-Oct;92(5):657-9


Photodegradation of the molluscicidal latex of "crown-of-thorns" (Euphorbia milii var hislopii).


Oliveira Filho EC, Paumgartten FJ.


Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.






102: Braz J Med Biol Res  1997 Nov;30(11):1325-32


Study of the embryofeto-toxicity of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii) latex, a natural molluscicide.


Souza CA, de-Carvalho RR, Kuriyama SN, Araujo IB, Rodrigues RP, Vollmer RS, Alves EN, Paumgartten FJ.


Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


The crude latex of Crown-of-Thorns (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) is a potent plant molluscicide and a promising alternative to the synthetic molluscicides used in schistosomiasis control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the embryofeto-toxic potential of E. milii latex. The study is part of a comprehensive safety evaluation of this plant molluscicide. Lyophilized latex (0, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) in corn oil was given by gavage to Wistar rats (N = 100) from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy and cesarean sections were performed on day 21 of pregnancy. The numbers of implantation sites, living and dead fetuses, resorptions and corpora lutea were recorded. Fetuses were weighed, examined for external malformations, and fixed for visceral examination, or cleared and stained with Alizarin red S for skeleton evaluation. A reduction of body weight minus uterine weight at term indicated that E. milii latex was maternally toxic over the dose range tested. No latex-induced embryolethality was noted at the lowest dose (125 mg/kg) but the resorption rate was markedly increased at 250 mg/kg (62.5%) and 500 mg/kg (93.4%). A higher frequency of fetuses showing signs of delayed ossification (control: 17.4%; 125 mg/kg: 27.4% and 250 mg/kg: 62.8%; P < 0.05 vs control) indicated that fetal growth was retarded at doses > or = 125 mg latex/kg body weight. No increase in the proportion of fetuses with skeletal anomalies was observed at the lowest dose but the incidence of minor skeletal malformations was higher at 250 mg/kg body weight (control: 13.7%; 125 mg/kg: 14.8%; 250 mg/kg: 45.7%; P < 0.05 vs control). Since a higher frequency of minor malformations was noted only at very high doses of latex which are embryolethal and maternally toxic, it is reasonable to conclude that this plant molluscicide poses no teratogenic hazard or, at least, that this possibility is of a considerably low order of magnitude.






103: Contact Dermatitis  1998 Feb;38(2):113-4


Contact dermatitis due to Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, simulating a phototoxic reaction.


Massmanian A.


Dermatology Department, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain.






104: Am J Trop Med Hyg  1998 Jan;58(1):7-10


The molluscicidal activity of Crown of Christ (Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii) latex on snails acting as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium.


Schall VT, de Vasconcellos MC, de Souza CP, Baptista DF.


Department of Biology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


The present study describes the action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (E. milli) on species of the genus Bulinus and on Biomphalaria pfeifferi, intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in Africa, and the Brazilian snails B. glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea, intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in Brazil. The impact of the latex on the egg masses and embryos of B. glabrata was also evaluated. Using the standardized methodology of the World Health Organization for testing plant-derived molluscicides, we obtained a 90% lethal dose (LD90) ranging from 0.13 ppm for B. glabrata subjected to lyophilized latex to 4.0 ppm for B. pfeifferi tested with the natural latex. This material has proved to be one of the most potent and specific plant molluscicides discovered thus far, presenting advantages in terms of application so that it could be used in programs involving community participation in endemic areas in both Brazil and Africa.






105: J Urol  1997 Dec;158(6):2093-6

Comment in:  J Urol. 1997 Dec;158(6):2097.


Urodynamic effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin in humans: preliminary results in stable and unstable detrusor.


Lazzeri M, Beneforti P, Turini D.


Department of Urology, University of Ferrara, Firenze, Italy.


PURPOSE: Resiniferatoxin, a substance isolated from some species of euphorbia, a cactus-like plant, presents pharmacological effects similar to those of capsaicin. We studied the urodynamic effects of intravesical resiniferatoxin* in normal subjects and patients with unstable detrusor contraction to provide insight into the action mechanism of the molecule on sensory neurons and possible future pharmacological and clinical use.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 15 subjects with normal (8 patients) or unstable detrusor muscle (1 with detrusor instability and 6 with detrusor hyperreflexia) underwent urodynamic assessment during and after intravesical instillation of resiniferatoxin. Volume required to elicit the first desire to void, maximum bladder capacity and maximum bladder pressure were recorded during instillation of resiniferatoxin at a flow rate of 20 ml. per minute (normal subjects) or 15 minutes after instillation of 30 cc of a saline solution containing 10(-8) M. of resiniferatoxin and kept for 30 minutes in patients with unstable detrusor. The experiment was examined by the analysis of variance for repeated measures and post hoc comparisons were performed by Tukey-Kramer procedure. A p value <0.05 was accepted as significant.

RESULTS: Resiniferatoxin did not decrease the volume required to elicit the first desire to void and did not produce warm or burning sensations at the suprapubic/urethral level during infusion in subjects with normal detrusor function. In patients with bladder hyperactivity mean bladder capacity increased from 175.28 ml. plus or minus standard deviation 36.05 to 280.85 ml. plus or minus standard deviation 93.33 (p <0.01) immediately after treatment, and no significant modification of bladder pressure was recorded. Four weeks after treatment, bladder capacity remained increased in 2 patients but mean capacity did not increase significantly from 175.28 ml. plus or minus standard deviation 36.053 to 216.71 plus or minus standard deviation 86.91. The 2 patients with stable increase of bladder capacity reported significant clinical improvement of frequency, nocturia and incontinence 4 weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in humans there may be substantial differences in urodynamic effects between resiniferatoxin and capsaicin when the drugs are instilled into the bladder. Further studies, in vitro and in vivo, are necessary to define the pharmacological and clinical effects of resiniferatoxin. Because resiniferatoxin did not produce warm or burning sensations at the suprapubic/urethral level during infusion and seems to have rapid desensitization, it could be an interesting alternative to intravesical capsaicin in the treatment of select cases of bladder hyperactivity.






106: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1997 Oct;89(1):51-9


Characterisation of the two malate dehydrogenases from Phytomonas sp. Purification of the glycosomal isoenzyme.


Uttaro AD, Opperdoes FR.


Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, Catholic University of Louvain ICP-TROP/74.39, Brussels, Belgium.


Two NAD(H)-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isoenzymes were detected in Phytomonas isolated from the lactiferous tubes of Euphorbia characias. The total specific activity in crude extracts using oxaloacetate as substrate was 3.3 U mg-1 of protein. The two isoenzymes had isoelectric points of 6.0 and 7.2, respectively. The acidic isoform represented 80% of the total activity in the cell and was present in the glycosome. It was purified to homogeneity by a method involving hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose followed by ionic exchange on CM-Sepharose and affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose. The purified glycosomal MDH is a homodimeric protein with a subunit molecular mass of 37 kDa and it has a low substrate specificity, since it was able to reduce both aromatic and aliphatic alpha-ketoacids as substrate including oxaloacetate, phenyl pyruvate, alpha-keto iso-caproate and pyruvate. The apparent K(m)s for oxaloacetate and NADH were 166 and 270 microM, respectively and for L-malate and NAD+, 3000 and 246 microM, respectively. The basic isoform was present in the mitochondrion. It has a high substrate specificity and an apparent K(m) of 132 and 63 microM for oxaloacetate and NADH, respectively, and of 450 and 91 microM, respectively, with L-malate and NAD+.






107: Vet Hum Toxicol  1997 Aug;39(4):248-9


Plant exposures ... a national profile of the most common plant genera.


Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD.


Pittsburgh Poison Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Plant exposures are the 4th most common cause of poisoning and 85% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant genus to establish a frequency distribution of all plant exposures in the United States. A total of 912,534 plant exposure cases were analyzed to tabulate the top 100 plant exposures. Philodendron spp were the most common exposures, followed by Dieffenbachia spp, Euphorbia spp, Capsicum spp and Ilex spp. Plant exposures are very common and poison information centers devote significant clinical service and educational effort to manage these exposures and enhance the public's awareness. Awareness of specific plant species and exposure frequency in a poison center region can serve as a basis for staff education and as the cornerstone for the development of appropriate information in poison prevention and education brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center financial resources.






108: Br J Ophthalmol  1997 Jun;81(6):518

Comment on:  Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Sep;80(9):823-6.


Euphorbia sap keratouveitis.


Eke T.






109: J Pharm Pharmacol  1997 May;49(5):573-6


Analysis of rabbit vascular responses to DBI, an ingol derivative isolated from Euphorbia canariensis.


Miranda FJ, Alabadi JA, Perez P, Orti M, Centeno JM, Yuste A, Sanz-Cervera JF, Marco JA, Alborch E.


Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Spain.


We have analysed the effects of 7,12-O-diacetyl-8-O-benzoil-2,3-diepiingol (DBI), an ingol derivative isolated from E. canariensis, on isometric tension developed by isolated rabbit basilar and carotid arteries. Concentration-response curves to DBI (10(-8) - 3 x 10(-5) M) were obtained cumulatively in both arteries at resting tension and active tone (KCI, 50 mM). At resting tension, DBI induced a concentration-dependent contraction, which was not inhibited in Ca(2+)-free medium. H7 (1-(5-isoquinoline sulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dichloride) (10(-4) M) inhibited the DBI-induced contraction both in basilar and in carotid arteries. Calmidazolium (10(-4) M) inhibited the maximum contraction of the carotid artery to DBI, and completely abolished the response in the basilar artery. In pre-contracted basilar arteries DBI induced a concentration-dependent relaxation that was not modified by incubation with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 10(-5) M) or indomethacin (10(-5) M). In the carotid artery with active tone DBI induced further contractions, which were not significantly modified by L-NOARG (10(-5) M) and were potentiated by indomethacin (10(-5) M). These results suggest that DBI contracts rabbit basilar and carotid arteries by a mechanism that is independent of extracellular Ca2+ and involves the participation both of protein kinase C and of calmodulin. DBI relaxes basilar but not carotid arteries by a mechanism independent of the liberation of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. In the carotid artery prostacyclin but not nitric oxide partially counteracts the contractile action of DBI.






110: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1997 Apr;85(2):213-9


Purification and characterisation of a novel iso-propanol dehydrogenase from Phytomonas sp.


Uttaro AD, Opperdoes FR.


Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.


An alcohol dehydrogenase with two identical subunits and a subunit molecular mass of 40,000 was purified from Phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous tubes of Euphorbia characias. Digitonin titration and subcellular fractionation suggest that the enzyme is present in the mitochondrion. It utilises as substrates, primary and secondary alcohols, is specific for NAD+ as coenzyme and is inhibited by HgCl(2). The pH optimum for the oxidation of ethanol is 9.5, and for the reverse reaction 8.5. The apparent Km values for iso-propanol and ethanol are 40 and 34 microM, respectively and for the reverse reaction, with acetone as substrate, 14 microM. The respective specific activities with iso-propanol and ethanol as substrate, as measured in crude extracts are 300 and 16 mU (milligram of protein)-1. In isoelectric focusing the enzyme showed three major bands with slightly differing isoelectric points that ranged from 6.4 to 6.8. The name, iso-propanol dehydrogenase is proposed for this enzyme.






111: Nat Biotechnol  1997 Feb;15(2):178-82


Phytoplasma induced free-branching in commercial poinsettia cultivars.


Lee IM, Klopmeyer M, Bartoszyk IM, Gundersen-Rindal DE, Chou TS, Thomson KL, Eisenreich R.


Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory, USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. imlee@asrr.arsusda.gov


Free-branching poinsettia cultivars that produce numerous axillary shoots are essential for propagating desirable multi-flowered poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild. Klotz). For more than a decade, a biological agent has been suspected to cause free-branching in poinsettias. Attempts to identify the branching agent have failed. Isolation of the pathogen was accomplished using a living host and it was concluded that an unculturable phytoplasma is the cause of free-branching in poinsettias. This is the first reported example of a pathogenic phytoplasma as the causal agent of a desirable and economically important trait.






112: Life Sci  1997;60(10):681-96


Euphorbium: modern research on its active principle, resiniferatoxin, revives an ancient medicine.


Appendino G, Szallasi A.


Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Italy.


Resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent capsaicin analog present in the latex of Euphorbia resinifera, interacts at a specific membrane recognition site (referred to as the vanilloid receptor), expressed by primary sensory neurons mediating pain perception as well as neurogenic inflammation. Desensitization to resiniferatoxin is a promising approach to mitigate neuropathic pain and other pathological conditions in which sensory neuropeptides released from capsaicin-sensitive neurons play a crucial role. Clinical trials to evaluate the potential of topical resiniferatoxin treatment to relieve pain associated with diabetic polyneuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia are in progress. Though resiniferatoxin was isolated only two decades ago, the dried latex of Euphorbia resinifera, called Euphorbium, has been in medicinal use since the time of recorded history. This review highlights the most important events in the history of this ancient medicine, from the first written record of the therapeutic potential of Euphorbium (at the time of the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus) to the identification of its active principle as resiniferatoxin in 1975. A brief overview of the enormous contribution of resiniferatoxin to our current understanding of the anatomical localization, function, and pharmacology of vanilloid receptors is provided. Lastly, the mechanisms are summarized by which capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, despite sharing receptors, may have dissimilar biological actions.






113: Braz J Med Biol Res  1996 Nov;29(11):1519-23


Tumor promoter-like activity of the molluscicidal latex of 'Crown-of-Thorns'(Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in the V79 metabolic cooperation assay.


Cruz CM, Kasper P, Cataldo A, Zamith HP, Paumgartten FJ.


Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


The latex of 'Crown-of-Thorns' (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. E. splendens) has been shown to be a potent plant molluscicide that could be used against the snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. However, a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of the latex is necessary before its large-scale use in schistosomiasis control becomes possible. In fact, one cause for concern is the presence of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in several plants of the Euphorbiaceae family. Phorbol esters as well as a number of other known tumor promoters share the common property of inhibiting metabolic cooperation (i.e., exchange of low molecular weight molecules via gap junctions) between Chinese hamster V79 cells in monolayer cultures. The present study was undertaken to determine if latex of E. milii presents tumor promoter-like activity is this short-term in vitro assay. Samples of lyophilized E. milii latex were tested at a noncytotoxic concentration range (1, 10, 50 and 100 micrograms/ml) in three independent experiments. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (10 ng/ml) was used as positive control. In all three assays, E. milii latex consistently inhibited metabolic cooperation between V79 cells at concentrations > or = 10 micrograms/ml. These results that E. milii latex contains tumor-promoting substances. These findings suggest that the use of crude latex as a molluscicide may pose a carcinogenic hazard to people who are continuously exposed to the product.






114: J Nat Prod  1996 Nov;59(11):1051-5


Constituents from the stem wood of Euphorbia quinquecostata with phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding inhibitory activity.


Mbwambo ZH, Lee SK, Mshiu EN, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD.


Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago 60612, USA.


Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOAc extract of the stem wood of Euphorbia quinquecostata using a phorbol dibutyrate receptor-binding assay system as a monitor yielded four inhibitory isolates (1-4), inclusive of one new compound, 17-hydroxyingenol 20-hexadecanoate (1), and three previously known compounds, ingenol 20-hexadecanoate (2), ent-16 alpha,17-dihydroxyatisan-3-one (3), and ent-3 beta,16 alpha,17-trihydroxyatisane (4). Also isolated from this extract were 10 constituents inactive in this bioassay, namely, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3-methylacetophenone (5), a new structure, and nine known compounds identified as ent-13S-hydroxyatis-16-ene-3, 14-dione; 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone (xanthoxylin); 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-3-methylacetophenone; 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin; lupeol acetate; beta-sitosterol; sitosterol beta-D-glucopyranoside; 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin; and 3,3',4'-tri-O-methyl-4-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1"'-->6")-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]ellagic acid. The structures of compounds 1 and 5 were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods.






115: Am J Emerg Med  1996 Nov;14(7):671-4


Poinsettia exposures have good outcomes...just as we thought.


Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD, Aronis JM.


Pittsburgh Poison Center, the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, and the Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, USA.


The poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) is a much-maligned plant which is thought by the public and some health professionals to be extremely toxic. Despite pronouncements by public health officials to the contrary, the poinsettia continues to be recognized as a poisonous plant. To determine if there was any validity to the toxicity claims, 849,575 plant exposures reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers were electronically analyzed. Poinsettia exposures accounted for 22,793 cases and formed the subset that was analyzed to critically evaluate the morbidity and mortality associated with poinsettia exposures. There were no fatalities among all poinsettia exposures and 98.9% were accidental in nature, with 93.3% involving children. The majority of exposed patients (96.1%) were not treated in a health care facility and 92.4% did not develop any toxicity related to their exposure to the poinsettia. Most patients do not require any type of therapy and can be treated without referral to a health care facility.






116: Bioorg Med Chem  1996 Oct;4(10):1679-83


New 19-acetoxyingol diterpenes from the latex of Euphorbia poisonii (Euphorbiaceae).


Fatope MO, Zeng L, Ohayagha JE, McLaughlin JL.


Department of Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.


The poisonous latex of Euphorbia poisonii gave bioactive 3,12-diacetyl-8-nicotinyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (1) together with its less active congeners, 3,12-diacetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (2) and 3-acetyl-7-phenylacetyl 19-acetoxyingol (3). The chemical structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, DEPT, HETCOR, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of the hydroxylated carbons in 2 and 3 were provisionally suggested by the Mosher ester method. Bioactivity-guided isolation, structure determination and cytotoxic activity of the new ingols are described.






117: Br J Ophthalmol  1996 Sep;80(9):823-6

Comment in:  Br J Ophthalmol. 1997 Jun;81(6):518.


Euphorbia sap keratopathy: four cases and a possible pathogenic mechanism.


Scott IU, Karp CL.


Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33139, USA.


AIMS: To report four cases of Euphorbia sap causing anterior segment toxicity.

METHODS: Medical records of four patients who presented with Euphorbia sap keratoconjunctivitis were reviewed. Clinical findings were compared with previously published reports.

RESULTS: All of these patients experienced a similar clinical course. Initial contact with Euphorbia sap caused punctate epitheliopathy; patients noted immediate burning and photophobia, but no visual loss. In all cases, patients experienced epithelial slough with delayed healing, requiring approximately 9 days to heal the epithelial defect. Patients were treated with topical antibiotics, pressure patching or a bandage contact lens, and final visual acuities were excellent in all cases. A review of the literature revealed that Euphorbia sap contains a diterpenoid diester which exhibits antineoplastic activity in rodents.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who work with Euphorbia plants should be cautioned to wear eye protection. Patients with Euphorbia sap anterior segment toxicity should be informed that their condition may worsen initially, but that visual outcome is generally excellent. The progressive corneal epithelial sloughing and delayed corneal epithelial healing may be secondary to the antineoplastic effects of Euphorbia sap.






118: Vet Hum Toxicol  1996 Aug;38(4):289-98


Plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.


Krenzelok EP, Jacobsen TD, Aronis JM.


Pittsburgh Poison Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. AAPCC TESS data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant species and state to establish a frequency distribution in the US. Aggregate national data was also tabulated. A total of 912,534 plant exposures were analyzed to tabulate the top 30 plant exposures for each state. Philodendron species were the most common exposures, followed by Dieffenbachia species, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Capsicum annuum and Ilex species. There were considerable differences between states relating to indoor vs outdoor plants and native vs introduced varieties. Plant exposures are common and poison information centers devote significant clinical service and educational effort to manage them and to enhance public awareness. Recognition of specific plant species and exposure frequency in a poison center region can be a basis for staff education and the development of appropriate poison prevention education brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center's resources.






119: Planta Med  1996 Aug;62(4):322-5


Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the leaves of Euphorbia pulcherrima.


Smith-Kielland I, Dornish JM, Malterud KE, Hvistendahl G, Romming C, Bockman OC, Kolsaker P, Stenstrom Y, Nordal A.


Institute for Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Norway.


Two cytotoxic triterpenes have been isolated from Euphorbia pulcherrima. Their structures and stereochemistry have been established from NMR, IR, and EI-mass spectroscopy. The compounds were identified as 9,19-cycloart-23-ene-3 beta,25-diol and, 9,19-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. While cycloartenol induced no cytotoxic activity against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, both isolated triterpenes exhibited cell inactivating effects. The IC50 is approximately 7.5 microM, while the IC90 is approximately 13.5 microM for 9,19-cycloart-25-ene-3 beta,24-diol. The 3 beta,25-diol compound is 50% less active.






120: Phytochemistry  1996 May;42(2):473-8


Aleppicatines A and B from Euphorbia aleppica.


Oksuz S, Gurek F, Lin LZ, Gil RR, Pezzuto JM, Cordell GA.


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, Turkey.


Two new pentacyclic diterpene polyesters, aleppicatine A and B, have been isolated from the acetone extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia aleppica, in addition to five known cycloartane-type triterpenes (24-methylenecycloartanol, cyclolaudenol cycloart-25-en-3 beta-ol-24-one, cycloart-22-en-3 beta,25-diol and cycloart-25-en-3 beta,24-diol), scopoletin, kaempferol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its methyl ether. The structures of the new compounds and their hydrolysis products have been extensively characterized by high-field NMR spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques.






121: Mutat Res  1996 May;368(1):15-20


Evaluation of the mutagenicity of the molluscicidal latex of Christ's Crown (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii) in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo.


Zamith HP, Paumgartten FJ, Speit G.


Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, INCQS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


The latex of Christ's Crown (Euphorbia milii var. hislopii, syn. E. splendens var. hislopii) is a highly active plant molluscicide and could be used for snail control to reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic areas. In the course of its toxicological evaluation, the mutagenicity of the latex of Euphorbia milii was tested in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. Latex was investigated for its capability of inducing gene mutations and chromosome aberrations in V79 cells in the absence and presence of S9-mix. Concentrations up to 800 micrograms/ml neither induced gene mutations at the HPRT locus nor chromosome aberrations. Latex had no effect on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow of male and female rats at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate that latex of E. milii is not mutagenic in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo and its use as a molluscicide does not pose a mutagenic hazard for humans.






122: J Med Chem  1996 Feb 16;39(4):1005-8


Selectively cytotoxic diterpenes from Euphorbia poisonii.


Fatope MO, Zeng L, Ohayaga JE, Shi G, McLaughlin JL.


Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 49707, USA.


Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the latex of Euphorbia poisonii Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of a new tigliane diterpene, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-(9,10-methylene)undecanoate (3), together with five known diterpenes (1,2,4-6). When evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of six human solid tumor cell lines, the diterpene esters, 1-3, 5, and 6, were selectively cytotoxic for the human kidney carcinoma (A-498) cell line with potencies for 2 and 3 exceeding that of adriamycin by ten thousand times. Details of the isolations, structural analyses, and cytotoxic activities are described.






123: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1996 Feb-Mar;76(1-2):43-56


An M(r) 145,000 low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding protein is conserved throughout the Kinetoplastida order.


Bastin P, Stephan A, Raper J, Saint-Remy JM, Opperdoes FR, Courtoy PJ.


Cell Biology Unit, Catholic University of Louvain and International Institute of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium.


In view of the importance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor in Trypanosoma brucei, we have examined whether other bloodstream trypanosomes of medical and veterinary importance (T.b. rhodesiense, T. equiperdum, T. vivax, T. congolense), but also related parasites developing in mammalian (Leishmania donovani) and non-mammalian hosts (Crithidia luciliae and Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia), would possess an LDL-receptor of their own. (1) All these parasites specifically accumulate human 125I-LDL with a relatively 2.5-fold higher rate for bloodstream trypanosomes. (2) A mixture of monoclonal antibodies raised against T.b. brucei LDL-receptor inhibit binding of LDL to all species but with different efficiency. (3) A single glycoprotein of similar M(r) (gp145) is isolated by LDL-affinity chromatography from all the above species, as well as from both human serum-resistant and sensitive strain of T.b. rhodesiense, and from the bodonid member of the Kinetoplastida Trypanoplasma borelli. (4) Several control experiments including 35S-metabolic labeling of procyclic T.b. brucei and of C. luciliae followed by LDL-affinity chromatography or immunoprecipitation demonstrate that gp145 is indeed synthesised by the parasites and is not a contaminant of the experimental system. (5) In immunoblots and ELISA, these gp145 cross-react with the polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against the LDL-receptor of T.b. brucei, the highest degree of cross-reactivity being found among the members of the Trypanozoon subgroup. (6) Finally, immunisation of mice with the purified LDL-receptor from one strain of T.b. brucei is not sufficient to confer durable protection against another strain of this parasite.






124: Biol Control  1996 Feb;57(3):105-13


Biology, Ecology, and Host Specificity of European Aphthona spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) Used as Biocontrol Agents for Leafy Spurge, Euphorbia esula (Euphorbiaceae), in North America


Gassmann A, Schroeder D, Maw E, Sommer G.


International Institute of Biological Control, European Station, Delemont, CH-2800, Switzerland


Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is an herbaceous perennial of European origin that was accidentally introduced into North America where it has become a serious weed in pastures and rangelands. Five species of root-feeding chrysomelid beetles in the genus Aphthona have been released in North America for the biological control of leafy spurge. They originate from central and eastern Europe and occur in different habitats. The brown species, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona flava, and Aphthona nigriscutis, occur predominantly in open dry habitats, and the black species, Aphthona czwalinai and Aphthona lacertosa, prefer moister habitats. All five species are univoltine and overwinter as larvae. The host range of these five Aphthona species is restricted to species in the subgenus Esula.






125: Teratog Carcinog Mutagen  1996;16(2):125-38


An investigation of some Turkish herbal medicines in Salmonella typhimurium and in the COMET assay in human lymphocytes.


Basaran AA, Yu TW, Plewa MJ, Anderson D.


Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.


Medicinal plants play a major role in the life of Turkish people and of late medicinal plant usage has increased in many countries. Green plants in general contain mutagenic and carcinogenic substances, but there is little information about the biological activities of herbal medicine. In the present study, therefore, various Turkish medicinal herbs were investigated for their genotoxic potential in the Salmonella typhimurium microsomal activation assay and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay. Extracts from these medicinal herbs and some fractions of these extracts were examined. The species investigated were Arctium minus, Ecballium elatterium, Momordica charantia, Plantago major, Urtica dioica, Viscum album, Salvia triloba, Euphorbia rigida, Stachys lavandulifolia, Acteoside, Abies nordmannia. They are used for various immune disorders and are applied either topically or taken orally as a herbal tea. Of the 19 samples of the extracts and fractions investigated, none produced a positive response in strains TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolic activation, but all produced an increase above negative control values in the COMET assay. Some extracts were investigated further and produced dose-related increases. In the case of Urtica and Euphorbia species, where two fractions from these plants were examined, one fraction produced a greater response than the other. It is suggested that the lesser response of the fractions might be due to less DNA strand-breaking agents in the fractions or they may have antigenotoxic properties. The breaks that are detected in the COMET assay could be alkali-labile AP-sites and intermediates in base- or nucleotide-excision repair and are difficult to interpret in terms of hazard for man. Further studies with additional genotoxicity assays would be required to make such a prediction.






126: J Ethnopharmacol  1995 Dec 1;49(2):115-8


Antibacterial effect of theaflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on Shigella spp.--a cell culture study.


Vijaya K, Ananthan S, Nalini R.


Department of Microbiology, University of Madras, Taramani, India.


Antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from Camellia sinensis L. and the methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta L. were studied against dysentery causing Shigella spp. using the Vero cell line. Cytotoxicity studies of the extracts were performed using the cell line and the non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract was tested for antibacterial activity against the cytopathic dose of the pathogen. These extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic and effective antibacterial agents.






127: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1995 Dec;20(12):744-5, 764


[Chemical constituents of Euphorbia hylonoma Hand. -Mazz]

[Article in Chinese]


Guo Z, Zhu R, Lu J, Li Y.


Faculty of Pharmacy, Xi'an Medical University.


Three compounds have been isolated from the root of Euphorbia hylonoma and identified as 3,3',4-tri-O- methylellagic acid, beta-sitosterol and sucrose by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound 3,3'4-tri-O-methylellagic acid is discovered in Euphorbia for the first time.






128: Biochem J  1995 Oct 15;311 ( Pt 2):495-503


The glycoinositol-phospholipids of Phytomonas.


Redman CA, Schneider P, Mehlert A, Ferguson MA.


Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland, U.K.


The Phytomonas spp. are trypanosomatid parasites of plants. A polar glycolipid fraction of a Phytomonas sp., isolated from the plant Euphorbia characias and grown in culture, was fractionated into four major glycolipid species (Phy 1-4). The glycolipids were analysed by chemical and enzymic modifications, composition and methylation analyses, electrospray mass spectrometry and microsequencing after HNO2 deamination and NaB3H4 reduction. The water-soluble headgroup of the Phy2 glycolipid was also analysed by 1H NMR. All four glycolipids were shown to be glycoinositol-phospholipids (GIPLs) with phosphatidylinositol (PI) moieties containing the fully saturated alkylacylglycerol lipids 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-palmitoylglycerol and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-stearoylglycerol. The structures of the Phy 1-4 GIPLs are: Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4GlcN alpha 1-6PI, Glc alpha 1-2(NH2-CH2CH2-HPO4-)Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4GlcN alpha 1-6PI, [formula: see text] Glc alpha 1-2(NH2CH2CH2-HPO4-)Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4(NH2-CH2CH2-HPO4-)GlcN alpha 1-6PI [formula: see text] and Glc alpha 1-2Glc alpha 1-2(NH2CH2-CH2-HPO4-)Man alpha 1-2Man alpha 1-6Man alpha 1-4(NH2CH2CH2-HPO4-)-GlcN alpha 1-6PI. [formula: see text] The Phytomonas GIPLs represent a novel series of structures. This is the first description of the chemical structure of cell-surface molecules of this plant pathogen. The Phytomonas GIPLs are compared with those of other trypanosomatid parasites and are discussed with respect to trypanosomatid phylogenetic relationships.






129: J Ethnopharmacol  1995 May;46(2):73-93


The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.


Rivera D, Obon C.


Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, Spain.


The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.






130: Biochem Mol Biol Int  1995 May;35(6):1199-204


Purification and partial characterization of a lectin from Euphorbia neriifolia latex.


Seshagirirao K, Prasad MN.


Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, India.


A lectin was purified from Euphorbia neriifolia latex to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B. The protein appears to be a dimer with approximate M(r) of 60,000 on gel filtration and showing a single band at M(r) 32,000 in SDS-PAGE, and contains 12.3% carbohydrate. It agglutinated trypsinized human and rabbit erythrocytes, but not sheep erythrocytes. However, sialidase-treated sheep erythrocytes were agglutinated. The galactose and galactose containing sugars inhibited the heamagglutination with increased beta-anomeric specificity. The Euphorbia lectin possesses mitogenic activity with murine spleen lymphocytes but it does not inhibit protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysate.






131: Br J Cancer  1995 Apr;71(4):776-9


Tumour promoter activity in Malaysian Euphorbiaceae.


Norhanom AW, Yadav M.


Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.


Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural Malaysian Malays.






132: Phytochemistry  1995 Apr;38(6):1457-62


Four diterpene esters from Euphorbia myrsinites.


Oksuz S, Gurek F, Gil RR, Pengsuparp T, Pezzuto JM, Cordell GA.


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, Turkey.


The Turkish species Euphorbia myrsinites has yielded four new tetracyclic diterpene tetraesters from a cytotoxic acetone extract, in addition to the known cycloartane-type triterpenoids and betulin. The new compounds and their hydrolysis product have been extensively characterized by high field spectroscopic techniques, and were shown to be four new tetraesters of the parent alcohol, myrsinol.






133: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  1995 Mar-Apr;90(2):191-4


Effect of Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70), Anacardium occidentale hexane extract and Euphorbia splendens latex on behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), under laboratory conditions.


Jurberg P, Sarquis O, dos Santos JA, Ferreira Rda C.


Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


The repellent effect of the molluscicides Niclosamide (Bayluscide WP 70), Anacardium occidentale and the latex of Euphorbia splendens on Biomphalaria glabrata was observed through the investigation of the occurrence of escape behavior among molluscs that were exposed to dosages lower than the LD 50. The total number of individuals out of water among the surviving snails in the control group provided a "Natural Escape Index". The comparison between this total and the total number of surviving snails in each group exposed to the different dosages of the molluscicides after 24 hr provided the "Molluscicide Escape Index" and the detection of a "Repellency Range" to these snails. The escape indexes for Niclosamide, A. occidentale and E. splendens were 10%, 6.22% and 6.44% respectively. Repellency occurred at the following concentration ranges: 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 ppm Bayluscide, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ppm A. occidentale and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 ppm E. splendens. The Natural Escape Index obtained in the control group was zero.






134: J Nat Prod  1995 Mar;58(3):408-13


New myrsinol-related polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene esters from roots of

Euphorbia prolifera.


Wu D, Sorg B, Hecker E.


Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, People's Republic of China.


Five Euphorbia substances, SPr1-SPr5, were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia prolifera. They were found to have similar structures but were inactive in a mouse ear inflammation assay. By nmr analysis and after single-crystal X-ray crystallography the structure of SPr5 was established as a hexaester (tetraacetate-benzoate-propionate) of a hitherto unknown polyfunctional pentacyclic diterpene parent alcohol, structurally related to myrsinol. As judged from its nmr spectra, SPr4 is an analogue of SPr5, carrying an isobutyrate substituent in place of a benzoate ester functionality. SPr1-SPr3 were partially characterized by their mass spectra as esters of diterpene parent alcohols possibly related to the myrsinol structure. SPr1-SPr5 may represent one of the product lines branching off the proposed main route of biogenesis of the oligocyclic diterpenoid skin irritants and tumor promoters occurring in many, but not all, of the species in the plant families Thymelaeaceae and Euphorbiaceae.






135: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1995 Mar;20(3):169-71, 192


[Chemical constituents of Euphorbia nematocypha Hand.-Mazz.]

[Article in Chinese]


Zhao K, Liu S, Yang J, Li X, Xu G, Jin R, Xu L.


Beijing Medical College of PLA.


Four compounds were isolated from the roots of Euphorbia nematocypha. Three of them were identified as A'-neogammacer-22(29)-en-3 beta-ol (18 beta.21 alpha) (II), jolkinolide E (III) and beta-sitoesterol (IV). Among them, II was obtained from the genus Euphorbia and III from this plant for the first time.






136: Prep Biochem  1995 Feb-May;25(1-2):11-9


Fractionation and characterization of two forms of peroxidase from Oryza sativa.


Padiglia A, Medda R, Pazzaglia G, Rescigno A, Cruciani E, Floris G.


Istituto di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Cagliari, Italy.


Peroxidase (E.C., hydrogen donor oxidoreductase) is widely distributed and has been isolated from many higher plants (1). The wide distribution of the enzyme suggests that it could be of great biological importance. However the role that it plays in metabolism is not clear due to the large number of reactions it catalyzes and the considerable number of isozymic species (2). In tomato plants, Evans and Aldridge (3) separated out six isoperoxidases and in a later paper Evans reported 12 isoperoxidases from tomato shoots (4). A homogeneous tomato fruit peroxidase isozyme was obtained by Jen et al. (5) using hydrophobic chromatography. Isozymes were not detected in Euphorbia characias peroxidase (6), in Ipomoea batatas peroxidase (7) and in Hordeum vulgare peroxidase (8). The simultaneous presence of Cu (II) amine oxidase and peroxidase in cell walls suggests that the peroxide generated on oxidation of the amines could be utilized by the peroxidase (6,8,9). In the graminea Oryza sativa, widely distributed, an FAD amine oxidase is present that oxidizes diamines (10). In this plant we also found two isoperoxidases called perox I and II. Only perox I was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic, physical and chemical properties have been studied.






137: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1995 Jan;20(1):3-4


[A review of the processing of Euphorbia kansui Liou]

[Article in Chinese]


Liang A.


Publication Types: Historical Article / Review / Review, Tutorial






138: Can J Microbiol  1995;41 Suppl 1:14-21


Formation of novel poly(hydroxyalkanoates) from long-chain fatty acids.


Eggink G, de Waard P, Huijberts GN.


Agrotechnological Research Institute (ATO-DLO), Wageningen, The Netherlands.


Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) were isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44T1 cultivated on euphorbia oil and castor oil. With the aid of 2-D proton NMR spectra and proton-detected multiple bond coherence NMR spectra the structures of the PHAs were determined. In addition to the usual PHA constituents (C6-C14 3-hydroxy fatty acids), PHAs formed from euphorbia oil contained delta 8,9-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5c-tetradecenoate, and probably delta 6,7-epoxy-3-hydroxydodecanoate and delta 4,5-epoxy-3-hydroxydecanoate. These novel constituents account for approximately 15% of the total amount of monomers and are clearly generated via beta-oxidation of vernolic acid (delta 12,13-epoxy-9c-octadecenoic acid), the main component of euphorbia oil. In PHAs formed from castor oil, 7% of the monomers found were derived from ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-9c-octadecenoic acid). The presence of 3,8-dihydroxy-5c-tetradecenoate was clearly demonstrated. Furthermore, NMR analysis strongly suggested the presence of 3,6-dihydroxydodecanoate, 6-hydroxy-3c-dodecenoate, and 4-hydroxydecanoate.






139: Parasitol Res  1995;81(7):575-81


Isolation, in vitro culture, ultrastructure study, and characterization by lectin-agglutination tests of Phytomonas isolated from tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherimoyas (Anona cherimolia) in southeastern Spain.


Sanchez-Moreno M, Fernandez-Becerra C, Mascaro C, Rosales MJ, Dollet M, Osuna A.


Instituto de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Espana.


Plants of Lycopersicon esculentum (grown in greenhouses) and Anona cherimolia cultivated in southeastern Spain were examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. Kinetoplastid protozoa were found in the fruits but not in the phloem or other plant tissues. Parasites were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were detected from the onset of fruiting. Isolates were adapted to in vitro culturing in monophase media. The form and the structural organization was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The parasites showed an ultrastructural pattern similar to that of other species of the genus Phytomonas. In tomatoes experimentally inoculated with flagellates cultivated in vitro, we observed that the parasites did not lose their infectious capacity. Three strains of trypanosomatids of the genus Phytomonas, isolated from different species of Euphorbia (E. characias and E. hyssopifolia) and from Cocos nucifera, were compared with our isolates by lectin-agglutination tests. Our isolates were different from the two strains isolated from Euphorbia, but with this technique we could not differentiate our isolates from those of the coconut, nor could we differentiate between the isolates, their ultrastructural similarity together with their similar behavior in the lectin-agglutination test suggesting that these isolates have a common origin.






140: Planta Med  1994 Dec;60(6):594-6


Biologically active compounds from the Euphorbiaceae; 2. Two triterpenoids of Euphorbia cyparissias.


Oksuz S, Gil RR, Chai H, Pezzuto JM, Cordell GA, Ulubelen A.






141: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  1994 Nov 22;91(24):11328-32


Lipases of the euphorbiaceae family: purification of a lipase from Euphorbia characias latex and structure-function relationships with the B chain of ricin.


Moulin A, Teissere M, Bernard C, Pieroni G.


Centre de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France.


A lipase from the latex of Euphorbia characias was purified using a method involving extraction with apolar solvent and adsorption chromatography on silica gel. The lipase (specific activity, 1500 international units/mg of protein) was eluted from silica gel complexes with a lipid. The main protein fraction, which had a molecular mass of 38 kDa, was inactive when dissociated from the lipid fraction. When the lipid and protein fractions were reassociated, 72% of the lipolytic activity was recovered. This lipolytic activity was inhibited by diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate, which was shown to bind the lipase with a molar ratio of 0.75. High specific activities (1000 international units/mg) were measured for the lipase of E. characias on lipid extracts rich in galactosyl diacylglycerols. The apolipase was sequenced up to residue 23. The B chain of ricin has a strong homology (43.5%) with that sequence and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the purified lipase from E. characias. The activity of the B chain of ricin was comparable (54 international units/mg) to that of the apolipase of E. characias (100 international units/mg) mixed with the same lipid cofactor complex. The primary structure (residues 68-72) of the B chain of ricin contains the lipase consensus sequence Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly. Its reactivity with diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate indicates the presence of an activated serine that, in addition to its well-documented lectin activity for galactosides, suggests that the B chain of ricin may be a galactosyl diacylglycerol lipase, closely analogous to the lipase from E. characias.






142: In Vivo  1994 Nov-Dec;8(6):1019-22


Cryptic dysfunction of cellular immunity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers and its actualization by an environmental immunosuppressive factor.


Sugiura M, Imai S, Sakurada K, Miyazaki T, Osato T.


Department of Virology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.


Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 4 asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers with normally retained EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity were exposed to EBV and incubated with 0.2 ng/ml 4-deoxyphorbol ester, an immunosuppressive substance derived from an African plant Euphorbia tirucalli. The regression of EBV-induced B-cell transformation by EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells was significantly impaired in the presence of a small amount of 4-deoxyphorbol ester, but not so in 5 HIV-1-seronegative healthy counterparts. When the EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells from the asymptomatic carriers were exposed to 0.2ng/ml 4-deoxyphorbol ester and incubated with 51Cr-labeled autologous EBV-transformed B lymphocytes, the released radioactivity was significantly smaller than that of the healthy counterparts. The results suggest that the cellular immunity of the asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers is cryptically impaired, and the cryptic immunological dysfunction is actualized by exposure to a small amount of the immunosuppressive substance, a dose which does not affect the immunity of uninfected healthy individuals.






143: Mol Biochem Parasitol  1994 Oct;67(2):321-31


Aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism of Phytomonas sp. isolated from Euphorbia characias.


Chaumont F, Schanck AN, Blum JJ, Opperdoes FR.


Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, International Institute of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium.


Metabolic studies on Phytomonas sp. isolated from the lactiferous tubes of the latex-bearing spurge Euphorbia characias indicate that glucose is the preferred energy and carbon substrate during logarithmic growth. In stationary phase cells glucose consumption was dramatically reduced. Glucose consumption and end-product formation were measured on logarithmically growing cells, both under aerobic (air and 95% O2/5% CO2) and anaerobic (95% N2/5% CO2 and 100% N2) conditions. The rate of glucose consumption slightly increased under anaerobic conditions indicating that Phytomonas lacks a 'reverse Pasteur' effect contrary to the situation encountered in Leishmania major. Major end-products of glucose catabolism under aerobic conditions, detected by enzymatic and NMR measurements, were acetate, ethanol and carbon dioxide and under anaerobic conditions ethanol, glycerol and carbon dioxide. Smaller amounts of pyruvate, succinate, L-malate, L-lactate, phosphoenolpyruvate, alanine and aspartate were also detected.






144: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo)  1994 Sep;42(9):1803-7


Tannins and related polyphenols of euphorbiaceous plants. XI. Three new hydrolyzable tannins and a polyphenol glucoside from Euphorbia humifusa.


Yoshida T, Amakura Y, Liu YZ, Okuda T.


Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.


Three new hydrolyzable tannins, euphormisins M1, M2, and M3, were isolated from Euphorbia humifusa WILLD., and respectively characterized as 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-4-O- brevifolincarboxyl-beta-D-glucose (19), an oxidative metabolite (23) of geraniin, and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-alpha-D-glucose (18), by spectroscopic and chemical methods. A new ellagic acid glucoside (16) and fifteen known tannins, including geraniin (8) and four dimers [euphorbins A (13), B (14), excoecarianin (15) and eumaculin A (12)], were also isolated.






145: Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health  1994 Sep;25(3):419-24


Perspectives of using Euphorbia splendens as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis control programs.


Baptista DF, Vasconcellos MC, Lopes FE, Silva IP, Schall VT.


Departmento de Biologia-IOC/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.


A total of 1,426 species of plants had been tested in order to find out a vegetal-derived molluscicide against the vectors of Schistosoma mansoni. Euphorbia splendens is one of the most promising molluscicides. In this article we briefly present the main aspects that have to be considered to use this plant as a molluscicide, which include some agricultural aspects and operational methods for application. This can be done by the extraction of the active principles (millaminas) present in the latex or in the raw juice obtained through total maceration of plants. The culture of E. splendens, which spreads out by vegetative sprouts, showed an annual average growth of 30 cm. After 1.5 years the average productivity of crude latex with a DL90 of 12 ppm concentration, was 1 liter by 8m2 by cultivated area. This amount is enough to treat a volume of water of 97,200 liters. A comparative analysis between the cost of snail control through synthetic molluscicides was carried out based upon the data presented by Jobim (1979) for six controlling methods in several countries, and some cost aspects for E. splendens. This analysis was done considering a geographic parameter expressed by the index cubic meters of treated habitat per square kilometer, from which we can obtain an estimate dimension of the geographic area to be cultivated with E. splendens necessary to treat the same volume of water treated by synthetic molluscicides.






146: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi  1994 Jun;19(6):325-7, 382


[Identification of Euphorbia humifusa Wind, and E. maculata Raf. from its confused species E. thymifolia L.]

[Article in Chinese]


Chu XL, Fan CS, Luo YZ.


Jiangxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang.






147: Afr J Med Med Sci  1994 Jun;23(2):161-3


Characterisation of ingenol: an inflammatory diterpene from some Nigerian Euphorbia and Elaeophorbia species.


Abo KA.


Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.


Inflammatory latices of Euphorbia deightonii, Euphorbia desmondi, Elaeophorbia drupifera and Elaeophorbia grandiflora were found to contain ingenol as the parent alcohol of the diterpene esters. The chemotaxonomic significance of the occurrence of ingenol in the genus Elaeophorbia is discussed.






148: Anticancer Res  1994 May-Jun;14(3A):933-6


African Burkitt's lymphoma: a plant, Euphorbia tirucalli, reduces Epstein-Barr virus-specific cellular immunity.


Imai S, Sugiura M, Mizuno F, Ohigashi H, Koshimizu K, Chiba S, Osato T.


Department of Virology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.


Endemicity of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) coincides with profusion of a plant Euphorbia tirucalli in tropical Africa. E. tirucalli contains 4-deoxyphorbol ester that enhances Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of B lymphocytes. In this study, we found that 4-deoxyphorbol ester reduced EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell function. Furthermore, the B lymphocytes dually exposed to EBV and 4-deoxyphorbol ester were resistant to EBV-specific T cell cytotoxicity, through down-regulation of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major target to EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells. These immunologic findings strengthen the notion that E. tirucalli may be an important environmental risk factor for the genesis of African BL.






149: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi  1994 May;14(5):282-4, 261


[Clinical analysis of 72 epileptic patients treated with alkaline extract of Euphorbia fisheriana]

[Article in Chinese]


Liu YX, Wang MZ, Sun XF.


Dept. of Neurology, Shanxi Med. College, Taiyuan.


The effect of 72 epileptic patients treated with alkaline extract of Euphorbia fisheriana (EF) was reported. 22 of them with intractable epilepsy were compared with the treatment of both single-blind and placebo. The results showed that the total effective rate with EF was 78%, its marked effective rate was 42% and the effective rate 36%. The epileptic patients reduced their frequency of seizures significantly (P < 0.05), while the effective rate of 22 epileptic patients with single-blind treatment was 59%, and that with placebo was 32%. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The active principle of Euphorbia fisheriana was Euphorbia alkaloid. There was no obvious adverse effect in clinical observation. It is considered that Euphorbia fisheriana is rich in resource, cheap, and with marked anticonvulsant effect.






150: J Ethnopharmacol  1994 Apr;42(2):111-6


Influence of some traditional medicinal plants of Senegal on prostaglandin biosynthesis.


Hiermann A, Bucar F.


Institut fur Pharmakognosie der Universitat Graz, Austria.


Aqueous extracts of Combretum micranthum G. Don, Euphorbia hirta L., Guiera senegalensis Lam. and Melaleuca leucadendron L. were investigated for their influence on prostaglandin biosynthesis (PG I2, PG E2, PG D2). Only the extract of Euphorbia hirta strongly reduced the release of prostaglandins I2, E2, and D2. Additionally Euphorbia hirta extracts exerted an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and depressed the formation of carrageenin induced rat paw oedema. The chemical nature of the active principle of Euphorbia hirta could be characterized as (a) compound(s) of medium polarity in the molecular weight range of 1000 to 3000 Da.




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