001: J Med Chem  2002 Jun 6;45(12):2425-31


Discovery and biological evaluation of a new family of potent modulators of multidrug resistance: reversal of multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells by new natural jatrophane diterpenoids isolated from euphorbia species.


Hohmann J, Molnar J, Redei D, Evanics F, Forgo P, Kalman A, Argay G, Szabo P.


Departments of Pharmacognosy, Medical Microbiology, Pharmaceutical Analysis, and Organic Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary, and Institute of Chemistry, Chemical Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.


The effects of 15 jatrophane diterpene polyesters (1-3 and 5-16) isolated from lipophilic extracts of Euphorbia serrulata, E. esula, E. salicifolia, and E. peplus (Euphorbiaceae) on the reversion of multidrug resistance of mouse lymphoma cells were examined. The structures of five new compounds (1-5) were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including HRFABMS, ESIMS, (1)H-(1)H homonuclear and (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlations, long-range correlation spectra, and NOESY experiments. The stereochemistry and absolute configuration of one compound (3) were determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure-activity relationship is discussed.






002: Planta  2002 May;215(1):41-50


Characterization of germination-specific lipid transfer proteins from Euphorbia lagascae.


Edqvist J, Farbos I.


Department of Plant Biology, SLU, Box 7080, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden, johan.edqvist@vbiol.slu.se


The endosperm of Euphorbia lagascae Spreng. seeds contains high levels of the epoxidated fatty acid vernolic acid ( cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid). To obtain transgenic oilcrops producing high levels of vernolic acid, better knowledge of its endogenous metabolism is needed. In this paper we study the gene activities involved in the mobilization and oxidation of vernolic acid during germination. A cDNA library was constructed from mRNA isolated from germinating E. lagascae seeds. Over 300 cDNA clones were partially characterized by DNA sequencing. Of the sequenced cDNAs, 18% encoded proteins with a putative function related to the metabolism of lipids or fatty acids. Among these cDNAs were genes coding for lipase, thiolase, acyl-CoA reductase and epoxide hydrolase. Of the sequenced clones, 4.5% encoded lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs), indicating the high abundance of such proteins during germination. We isolated the full-length sequences of the E. lagascae cDNAs encoding the LTPs ElLTP1 and ElLTP2. These proteins share only 38% identity, but both show high similarity to LTPs from other plant species. Both sequences contain eight cysteine residues, which are conserved in most plant LTPs. Expression analysis revealed that both genes were specifically expressed during germination.






003: Pest Manag Sci  2002 May;58(5):479-82


Molluscicidal and anti-feedant activities of diterpenes from Euphorbia paralias L.


Abdelgaleil SA, el-Aswad AF, Nakatani M.


Pesticide Chemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Elshatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.


Nine known diterpene polyesters of segetanes, jatrophenes and paralianes have been isolated from the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias L. The molluscicidal activity of isolated compounds was evaluated on Biomphalaria alexandrina (Ehrenberg). Paraliane diterpene, (2S,3S,4R,5R,6R,8R,12S,13S,14R,15R)-5,8,14-triacetoxy-3-benzoyloxy-15- hydroxy-9-oxo-paraliane, was the most potent compound against the snail.

Anti-feedant activity was tested by a conventional leaf disc method against third-instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). Jatrophene diterpene, (2R,3R,4S,5R,7S,8R,13R,15R)-2,3,5,7,15-pentaacetoxy-8-angeloyloxy-14,15- dioxojatropha-6(17)-11E-diene, had the highest anti-feedant activity among the compounds tested.






004: J Environ Manage  2002 Feb;64(2):153-69


Evaluation of a forage allocation model for Theodore Roosevelt National Park.


Irby LR, Norland JE, Westfall JA Jr, Sullivan MA.


Ecology Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA. ubili@montana.edu


We developed a forage allocation model using a deterministic, linear optimization module in a commercially available spreadsheet package to help resource managers in Theodore Roosevelt National Park (TRNP), North Dakota determine optimum numbers of four ungulate species, bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and feral horses, in the Park. TRNP staff actively managed bison, elk, and feral horse numbers within bounds suggested by our model from 1983 to 1996. During this period, we measured vegetation at 8 grassland and 12 wooded sites at 1-3 year intervals to determine if model solutions were appropriate for maintaining stable conditions in important plant communities in the Park. The data we recorded at these sites indicated minimal change in plant communities from 1983 to 1996. Changes in most vegetation categories that we expected when animal numbers exceeded model optimums for short periods (decreases in coverage/stem numbers of palatable plant species, increases in bare ground or unpalatable plant species) did not occur consistently under high or low precipitation conditions. The lack of sensitivity of our model to decreases in overall production of palatable plant species that occurred due to drought, fire, expansion of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies, and the spread of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in areas of the Park where we did not have monitoring sites suggested that the model under-estimated the total number of ungulates that the Park could support. Management for population levels of ungulates defined by the model probably led to over protection of common plant communities and insufficient protection of rare plant communities. Detecting changes in rare plant communities could have been accomplished by re-designing our vegetation monitoring program, but changing emphasis to protection of rare plants would have likely promoted under use of grazing-tolerant habitat types, dissatisfaction in tourists visiting the Park to see large mammals, and large increases in cost and intrusiveness of management activities such as fencing and control of ungulate populations. The model was a flawed representation of grazing dynamics in TRNP, but we believe it succeeded in making management personnel aware of the biological constraints they face when making management decisions.






005: Hautarzt  2002 Mar;53(3):192-5


Allergic reaction following contact with Hura crepitans (sandbox tree).

[Article in German]


Thumm EJ, Bayerl C, Goerdt S.


Klinik fur Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Klinikum Mannheim gGmbH, Universitatsklinikum, Fakultat fur Klinische Medizin Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim.


We describe a 36-year-old female patient with angioedema-like swellings and rhinoconjunctivitis for 1 year occurring exclusively at her home. The clinical history revealed no correlation with foods, food additives, drugs, or aeroallergens. The complaints always started immediately after contact with the sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) placed in her apartment. Scratch testing resulted in a two-fold positive reaction towards leaves and stem, while five controls remained negative. Thus we suggest the reaction of the patient to be allergic in nature. Hura crepitans belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, whose largest genera are Euphorbia and Croton. The toxic reactions to the milky sap, the so-called latex, of these plants are caused by ingredients such as phorbol esters, croton oil, lectins, and terpens. Various terpens are also well known as allergens. Phytotoxic and phytoallergic reactions are growing increasingly important and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in dermatology.






006: Acta Pharm Hung  2001 Oct;71(3):289-92


[New diterpene polyesters isolated from Hungarian Euphorbia species]

[Article in Hungarian]


Evanics F, Hohmann J, Redei D, Vasas A, Gunther G, Dombi G.


Sixteen new diterpene polyesters were isolated and identified from Hungarian Euphorbiaceae species. Two of them (21, 23) are based on formerly unknown diterpene core. The structures of three jatrophane type diterpene heptaester were elucidated (1, 3, 6), which are diterpenoids with the highest degree of esterification identified from this plant family. Some of the isolated compounds have pharmacological effects, others are under testing now.






007: Plant Physiol  2002 Apr;128(4):1439-46


Molecular analysis of signals controlling dormancy and growth in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge.


Horvath DP, Chao WS, Anderson JV.


United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, State University Station, Fargo, North Dakota 58105-5674.


Dormancy and subsequent regrowth of adventitious buds is a critical physiological process for many perennial plants. We have used the expression of hormone and cell cycle-responsive genes as markers to follow this process in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). In conjunction with earlier studies, we show that loss of mature leaves results in decreased sugar levels and increased gibberellin perception in underground adventitious buds. Gibberellin is sufficient for induction of S phase-specific but not M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of both apical and axillary buds or inhibition of polar auxin transport did not result in induction of S phase- or M phase-specific gene expression. Loss of polar auxin transport was necessary for continuation of the cell cycle and further bud development if the S phase was previously initiated.






008: Yao Xue Xue Bao  1998;33(2):128-31


[Studies on diterpenoids from the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata]

[Article in Chinese]


Wang W, Ding X.


Institute of Materia Medica, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan 250062.


Euphorbia ebractolata has been used as insecticide and tuberculocide. Four crystalline compounds were isolated from the root of this plant. They were characterized by their physico-chemical properties and spectral data as: 3-acety alpha-amyrin (I), Jolkinolide B (II), ebracteolatanolide A (III) and ebracteolatanolide B (IV). I and II were isolated for the first time from E. ebracteolata Hayata. III and IV are new compounds.






009: Planta Med  2002 Mar;68(3):249-52


Cytotoxic Diterpenoids from Euphorbia pekinensis.


Kong LY, Li Y, Wu XL, Min ZD.


Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University,

Nanjing, P.R.China. lykong@jlonline.com


A new diterpenoid, named euphpekinensin, along with three known diterpenoids, was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis for the first time and the structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. The 2D-NMR techniques such as (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra were mainly applied to determine the structure of the new diterpenoid. The four diterpenoids showed cytotoxic activity against human KB cells in vitro.






010: Planta Med  2002 Mar;68(3):244-8


New macrocyclic diterpenoids from Euphorbia esula.


Liu LG, Meng JC, Wu SX, Li XY, Zhao XC, Tan RX.


Institute of Functional Biomolecules, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing

University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.


The structures of two new macrocyclic jatrophane diterpenoid esters from the whole herb of Euphorbia esula, were established as 11,14-epoxy-3beta,5alpha,7beta,8alpha,9alpha,15beta-hexaacetoxy-12-oxo-13alphaH- jatropha-6(17)-ene (1) and 1alpha,3beta-diacetoxy-5alpha,7beta-dibenzoyloxy-9,14-dioxo-11beta,12alpha-epoxy -2alpha,8alpha,15beta-trihydroxy-13betaH-jatropha-6(17)-ene (2) by a combination of 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques as well as UV, IR and mass spectral data. Bioassay evaluation of all isolates against the human tumor cell lines (B16, KB, SMMC and BGC) indicated that ester 2 was cytotoxic to B16 with the IC50 value being 1.81 microg/ml. In addition, the irritant activity assay indicated that both diterpenoids were inactive (ID(24)50 > 100 microg/ear).






011: Biochem Pharmacol  2002 Mar 1;63(5):951-7


Jolkinolide B induces neuroendocrine differentiation of human prostate LNCaP cancer cell line.


Liu WK, Ho JC, Qin G, Che CT.


Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong,

New Territories, Shatin, Hong Kong. ken-liu@cuhk.edu.hk


Euphorbia fischeriana is a Chinese herbal medicine which has been reported to possess chemotherapeutic effects, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. In order to understand its possible anti-tumor property, we have isolated a number of chemical compounds from the roots of this plant [Phytochemistry 52 (1999) 117] and studied their in vitro effects by using human prostate LNCaP cancer cell line. Among the six compounds tested, jolkinolide B exhibited the most potent anti-proliferative activity (IC(50)=12.5 microg/mL=40 microM) and it inhibited DNA synthesis by down-regulating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in LNCaP cells in a dose-dependent manner. Jolkinolide B, at concentrations up to 25 microg/mL, induced G1 arrest and neuroendocrine differentiation of LNCaP cells. Immunoblotting analysis confirmed the increased expression of neuroendocrine markers, keratin 8/18 (K8/18) and neuron specific enolase (NSE), in these cells. Apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation were observed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry when the cells were exposed to a concentration higher than 25 microg/mL jolkinolide B.

Taken all data together, jolkinolide B seems to play a role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of LNCaP cells.






012: J Nat Prod  2002 Feb;65(2):158-62


Eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol C") and other triterpenes from Euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation.


Akihisa T, Kithsiri Wijeratne EM, Tokuda H, Enjo F, Toriumi M, Kimura Y, Koike K, Nikaido T, Tezuka Y, Nishino H.


College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda Surugadai,

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan. akihisa@chem.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp


The structures of three triterpene alcohols isolated from the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum were established to be eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (2; antiquol C), 19(10-->9)abeo-8alpha,9beta,10alpha-eupha-5,24-dien-3beta-ol (3; antiquol B), and 24-methyltirucalla-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol (4; euphorbol) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3 and 4 have previously been assigned the erroneous structures of 10alpha-cucurbita-5,24-dien-3alpha-ol and 24-methyleupha-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol, respectively. Compounds 2-4 and four other known compounds isolated from the latex, euphol (1), lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3beta-ol (5), isohelianol (6), and camelliol C (7), showed potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA).






013: Plant Physiol  2002 Feb;128(2):615-24


Transgenic production of epoxy fatty acids by expression of a cytochrome P450 enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae seed.


Cahoon EB, Ripp KG, Hall SE, McGonigle B.


DuPont Crop Genetics, Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE 19880-0402, USA.



Seed oils of a number of Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae species are enriched in 12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid (vernolic acid), an unusual 18-carbon Delta(12)-epoxy fatty acid with potential industrial value. It has been previously demonstrated that the epoxy group of vernolic acid is synthesized by the activity of a Delta(12)-oleic acid desaturase-like enzyme in seeds of the Asteraceae Crepis palaestina and Vernonia galamensis. In contrast, results from metabolic studies have suggested the involvement of a cytochrome P450 enzyme in vernolic acid synthesis in seeds of the Euphorbiaceae species Euphorbia lagascae. To clarify the biosynthetic origin of vernolic acid in E. lagascae seed, an expressed sequence tag analysis was conducted. Among 1,006 randomly sequenced cDNAs from developing E. lagascae seeds, two identical expressed sequence tags were identified that encode a cytochrome P450 enzyme classified as CYP726A1. Consistent with the seed-specific occurrence of vernolic acid in E. lagascae, mRNA corresponding to the CYP726A1 gene was abundant in developing seeds, but was not detected in leaves. In addition, expression of the E. lagascae CYP726A1 cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by production of vernolic acid in cultures supplied with linoleic acid and an epoxy fatty acid tentatively identified as 12-epoxyoctadeca-9,15-dienoic acid (12-epoxy-18:2Delta(9,15)) in cultures supplied with alpha-linolenic acid. Consistent with this, expression of CYP726A1 in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) callus or somatic soybean (Glycine max) embryos resulted in the accumulation of vernolic acid and 12-epoxy-18:2Delta(9,15). Overall, these results conclusively demonstrate that Asteraceae species and the Euphorbiaceae E. lagascae have evolved structurally unrelated enzymes to generate the Delta(12)-epoxy group of vernolic acid.






014: Nat Prod Lett  2001;15(5):363-9


Cycloartane triterpenes from Euphorbia tuckeyana.


Ferreira MJ, Pinto FC, Ascenso JR.


CECF, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.



Investigation of the acetone extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia tuckeyana afforded a new cycloartane-type triterpene named as cyclotucanol. Its structure was established as cycloartane-24-methylene-3beta,25-diol (1). The known cycloartane triterpenes cycloeucalenol (2), 3beta-hydroxycycloart-25-en-24-one (3), cycloart-25-ene-3beta,24-diol (4), 25,26,27-trisnor-3beta-hydroxycycloartan-24-al (5) and cycloart-23-ene-3beta,25-diol (6) were also isolated and identified.






015: Phytochemistry  2002 Feb;59(3):331-5


Macrocyclic diterpenes from Euphorbia nivulia.


Ravikanth V, Niranjan Reddy VL, Prabhakar Rao T, Diwan PV, Ramakrishna S, Venkateswarlu Y.


Natural Products Laboratory, Organic Chemistry Division-I, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad-500 007, India.


The latex of Euphorbia nivulia afforded two ingol diterpenes 3,12-diacetyl-8-benzoylingol (4) and 3,12-diacetyl-7-benzoyl-8-nicotinylingol (5) along with three known ingol diterpenes 1, 2,and 3, and two known triterpenes cycloart-25-en-3beta-ol and cyclonivulinol. Their structures have been assigned on the basis of their structural data as well as their acetylated products. The diterpenes 1-5 were tested for the LPS induced PGE(2) inhibition activity.






016: J Chem Ecol  2001 Dec;27(12):2397-423


Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta and Aphthona flea beetles.


Bartelt RJ, Cosse AA, Zilkowski BW, Weisleder D, Momany FA.


USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA. BartelRJ@NCAUR.USDA.gov


It was previously reported that males of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae, feeding on host foliage are attractive to both males and females in the field. Based on this evidence for an aggregation pheromone, volatiles were collected from male and female P. cruciferae feeding on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and analyzed. For comparison, volatiles were also collected from males and females of three other flea beetle species, Aphthona flava, A. czwalinae, and A. cyparissiae, all feeding on their host, leafy spurge foliage (Euphorbia esula). Six male-specific compounds were isolated from P. cruciferae, and the same compounds plus two additional ones were isolated from males of Aphthona flava, A. czwalinae, and A. cyparissiae. The blends of compounds were relatively consistent within species, but there were characteristic differences between species. Compound structures were studied by mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, polarimetry, chiral and achiral gas chromatography, molecular modeling, and microchemical tests. Three of the compounds were identified as (+)-ar-himachalene; (+)-trans-alpha-himachalene; (+)-y-cadinene. Two others were new enantiomers of himachalene hydrocarbons that were previously identified from the fir trees, Abies alba and Abies nordmanniana. Finally, there were two himachalene alcohols and one norsesquiterpene ketone that is a himachalene analog. Only (+)-ar-himachalene and (+)-y-cadinene are previously known natural products. Electrophysiological activity was demonstrated for five of the compounds. The chemical and electrophysiological patterns are consistent with, but do not prove, a pheromonal function.






017: Phytochemistry  2001 Dec;58(7):1135-9


Diterpenoids from Euphorbia paralias.


Abdelgaleil SA, Kassem SM, Doe M, Baba M, Nakatani M.


Department of Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.


Two segatane diterpenoids containing a bicyclic [4,3,1] ring system were isolated, together with 11 known diterpenoids, four segetanes, five jatrophanes and two paralianes, from the aerial parts of Euphorbia paralias. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means, including by 2D NMR and CD spectroscopic analyses. The antifeedant and antiviral activities of the isolated compounds are also described.






018: Phytochem Anal  2001 Jul-Aug;12(4):255-62


HPLC-UV and HPLC-positive-ESI-MS analysis of the diterpenoid fraction from caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris) seed oil.


Bicchi C, Appendino G, Cordero C, Rubiolo P, Ortelli D, Veuthey JL.


Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, via Pietro Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino, Italy. bicchi@pharm.unito.it


Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris L.) seed oil contains a series of diterpenoids known as Euphorbia factors, or L-factors, L1-L9. They are esters of several polyols (lathyrol, epoxylathyrol, hydroxylathyrol and ingenol) and account for about 3-5% of the oil. The percentage of ingenol-based L-factors is very low, less than 5% of the diterpenoid fraction, but some of them (factors L5 and L6) are responsible for the irritant and co-carcinogenic activities of the oil. This paper reports an HPLC-UV and HPLC-positive-ESI-MS analysis of the diterpenoid fraction of caper spurge seed oil before and after selective hydrolysis of ingenol-based L-factors. Separation of lathyrane polyols and esters, and ingenol and its esters was achieved using a chromatographic system consisting of a C18 stationary phase and acetonitrile: water as mobile phase. A new macrocyclic constituent, the deoxy Euphorbia factor L1, was identified in the oil.






019: J Org Chem  1996 Mar 8;61(5):1707-1709


Terracinolides A and B, Two Bishomoditerpene Lactones with a Novel Carbon Framework from Euphorbia terracina.


Marco JA, Sanz-Cervera JF, Yuste A, Jakupovic J, Lex J.


Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain,

Institut fur Organische Chemie, Technische Universitat Berlin, D-10623 Berlin, Germany, and

Institut fur Organische Chemie, Universitat Koln, D-50939 Koln, Germany.


A methanolic extract of Euphorbia terracina L. has been shown to contain two peracylated polyhydroxy terpenoid lactones with a novel C(22) carbon framework. These metabolites, which have been named terracinolides A (1) and B (2), are based on the same parent compound, but differ in the nature of one of the acyl residues. This novel skeletal system is formally derived from the jatrophane framework by addition of a two-carbon fragment on C-17 (jatrophane numbering).






020: Bot Mus Lealf Harv Univ  1978;26:277-309


A neglected Mayan galactagogue, Ixbut (Euphorbia lancifolia).


Rosengarten F.


Publication Types: Historical Article






021: J Ethnopharmacol  2001 Nov;78(1):1-5


Enhanced antifungal activity of ketoconazole by Euphorbia characias latex against Candida albicans.


Giordani R, Trebaux J, Masi M, Regli P.


Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Pharmacie, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Cedex 05, Marseille, France.


The in vitro suseptibility of Candida albicans to ketoconazole and Euphorbia characias latex alone or in combination was tested using the macrobroth dilution method. The MIC 80% of crude latex and ketoconazole are respectively 159 microg protein/ml and 0.3901 microg/ml. This method permits us to determine an affinity constant K(aff) for crude latex (0.015 microg(-1) protein ml) and ketoconazole (23.828 microg(-1) ml). The utilization of a mixture of latex at several concentrations (7.8-15.62-31.25-62.5 and 125 microg protein/ml) and ketoconazole indicates a synergistic effect between latex and ketoconazole. For latex concentrations of 31.25 and 62.5 microg protein/ml the MIC 80% of ketoconazole were inferior (0.194 and 0.183 microg/ml respectively) to that obtained with ketoconazole alone (0.390 microg/ml). A synergistic effect is therefore obtained between ketoconazole on the one hand and two concentrations of Euphorbia characias latex.






022: Planta Med  2001 Oct;67(7):672-4


Cytotoxicities and anti-herpes simplex virus activities of diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia species.


Mucsi I, Molnar J, Hohmann J, Redei D.


The cytotoxicities of nine diterpene polyesters obtained from Euphorbia species were assayed by measuring their effects on the growth of Vero cells. Their antiviral effects on the multiplication of Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were studied by using the virus yield reduction method in cell cultures. With the exception of the strongly cytotoxic 2alpha,5alpha,14beta-triacetoxy-3beta-benzoyloxy-8alpha,15beta-dihydroxy-7beta-I sobutanoyloxy-9alpha-nicotinoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-diene (CC(50) 3.5 microg/ml), all the tested diterpenes exhibited a pronounced or moderate anti-herpes virus effect (IC(50) values between 2.5 and 8.3 microg/ml). The observed HSV-2 inhibitory activities were not associated with virucidal effects.






023: Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd  2001 Aug;8(4):207-12


Antiviral action of Euphorbium compositum and its components.


Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P.

Labor Dr. Glatthaar, Reutlingen. LaborDr.Glatthaar@t-online.de


INTRODUCTION: Euphorbium compositum SN (Biologische Heilmittel Heel GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany, a homeopathic combination preparation available in form of drops, nasal spray, and injection solution), is prescribed for inflammation of the mucosae of the nose and sinuses. Infections in these areas are primarily of viral origin although bacterial superinfections are also common.

OBJECTIVE: The main question was whether or not this homeopathic remedy shows an activity against viruses responsible for infections of the respiratory tract.

METHODS:This in vitro study using virus plaque reduction assays examined the effect of Euphorbium compositum SN against pathogens causing various viral infections: influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).

RESULTS: Analysis of virus production after treatment of the infected cells with the remedy showed an antiviral activity of Euphorbium compositum SN against RSV and HSV-1. In addition, an antiviral effect against influenza A virus and HRV, though minimal, was, also noted. Analyses of the plant-derived components of Euphorbium compositum SN, e.g. Euphorbium resinifera, Pulsatilla pratensis and Luffa operculata for their antiviral activity revealed a clear activity of Euphorbium resinifera and Pulsatilla pratensis against RSV. In contrast, no effect was detected using the same protocol with Luffa operculata.

CONCLUSIONS: Euphorbium resinifera and Pulsatilla pratensis as components of Euphorbium compositum SN are responsible for its antiviral activity. Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg






024: J Nat Prod  2001 Aug;64(8):1064-8


New jatrophane diterpenoid esters from Euphorbia turczaninowii.


Liu LG, Tan RX.


Institute of Functional Biomolecules, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.


Five new (1-5) and one known (6) jatrophane diterpenoid esters were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole herb of Euphorbia turczaninowii. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute stereochemistry of 3 beta,5 alpha,8 alpha,15 beta-tetraacetoxy-7 beta-benzoyloxyjatropha-6(17),11E-dien-9,14-dione (1) was confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray analysis coupled with the exciton chirality circular dichroism method. Compounds 1-6 were inactive when evaluated both in a mouse ear inflammation assay and for cytotoxicity against the B16 mouse melanoma cell line.






025: Planta Med  2001 Aug;67(6):501-4


Inhibitory activity for chitin synthase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by tannins and related compounds.


Hwang EI, Ahn BT, Lee HB, Kim YK, Lee KS, Bok SH, Kim YT, Kim SU.


Antibiotics Research Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yusung, Taejon, Korea.


In the course of search for potent inhibitors of chitin synthase II from natural resources, seven tannins and related compounds were isolated from the aerial part of Euphorbia pekinensis and identified as gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3), corilagin (4), geraniin (5), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (6), and kaempferol-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucoside (7). These and nine related compounds, (-)-quinic acid (8), (-)-shikimic acid (9), ellagic acid (10), kaempferol (11), quercetin (12), quercitrin (13), rutin (14), quercetin-3-O-(2"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-rutinoside (15) and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (16), were evaluated for the inhibitory activity against chitin synthase II and III. They inhibited chitin synthase II with IC(50) values of 18-206 microM, except for two organic acids, (-)-quinic acid (8) and (-)-shikimic acid (9). Among them, 3-O-galloyl-(-)-shikimic acid (3) was the most potent inhibitor against chitin synthase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with an IC(50) value of 18 microM. The inhibition appears to be selective for chitin synthase II, as they did not appreciably inhibit chitin synthase III.






026: Fitoterapia  2000 Sep;71(5):562-3


Antinociceptive activity of Euphorbia heterophylla roots.


Vamsidhar I, Mohammed AH, Nataraj B, Madhusudana Rao C, Ramesh M.


K.M. College of Pharmacy, Madurai 625107, India.


Following an identified use of the plant as analgesic in traditional medicine, the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla root have been tested for antinociceptive activity in rats. All extracts showed significant effects at doses of 150-300 mg/kg i.p.






027: Org Lett  2001 May 31;3(11):1609-12


Unnatural natural products from the transannular cyclization of lathyrane diterpenes.


Appendino G, Tron GC, Jarevang T, Sterner O.


Universita del Piemonte Orientale, DiSCAFF, Viale Ferrucci 33, 28100 Novara, Italy. appendin@pharm.unito.it


The potential of macrocyclic diterpenoids to afford natural product-like polycyclic compounds was demonstrated by the conversion of two lathyrane Euphorbia factors into a series of densely functionalized diterpenoids of unnatural skeletal type. Apparently, Nature is far from having fully exploited the built-in reactivity of these compounds to generate chemical diversity.






028: J Theor Biol  2001 Jun 7;210(3):385-8


Aposematic (warning) coloration associated with thorns in higher plants.


Lev-Yadun S.


Department of Biology, University of Haifa-Oranim, Tivon, 36006, Israel. levyadun@research.haifa.ac.il


Aposematic coloration, a well-known phenomenon in animals, has been given little attention in plants. Here I discuss two types of conspicuousness of thorns which are typical of many plant species: (1) colorful thorns, and (2) white spots, or white and colorful stripes, associated with thorns in leaves and stems. Both types of aposematic coloration predominate the spine system of taxa rich with spiny species-Cacti, the genera Agave, Aloe and Euphorbia. The phenomena have been recorded here in over a thousand species originating in several continents of both the Old and New World. I propose that this is a case of vegetal aposematic coloration analogous to such coloration of poisonous animals, and which communicates between plants and herbivores. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.






029: Acta Trop  2001 May 25;79(2):165-70


The control of the schistosome-transmitting snail Biomphalaria glabrata by the plant Molluscicide Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (syn milli Des. Moul): a longitudinal field study in an endemic area in Brazil.


Schall VT, Vasconcellos MC, Rocha RS, Souza CP, Mendes NM.


Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. vtschall@cpqrr.fiocruz.br


Under laboratory conditions, latex from Euphorbia splendens has shown promise as a plant molluscicide for control of Biomphalaria species, intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficiency under field conditions. Application of filtered latex at 12 ppm to one stream in an endemic rural area in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in September 1995, did result in a reduction in snail density as compared to an untreated stream but the snail population recovered quickly. However, two applications with a two-week interval of unfiltered E. splendens latex at 5 ppm in November 1996 in the same stream resulted in complete disappearance of B. glabrata and snails did not reappear until the 14th month after the applications. In the control stream, without treatment, the snails were found during all months. Laboratory studies confirmed that unfiltered latex is a more potent molluscicide than filtered latex. Considering the advantages of the latex such as its low toxicity to other aquatic animals and its photobiodegradability, as well as the simple method of application, this natural product is promising as an effective molluscicide.






030: Biomed Sci Instrum  2001;37:391-7


Utilizing image processing techniques to compute herbivory.


Olson TE, Barlow VM.


Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-3295, USA.


Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L. sensu lato) is a perennial weed species common to the north-central United States and southern Canada. The plant is a foreign species toxic to cattle. Spurge infestation can reduce cattle carrying capacity by 50 to 75 percent [1]. University of Wyoming Entomology doctoral candidate Vonny Barlow is conducting research in the area of biological control of leafy spurge via the Aphthona nigriscutis Foudras flea beetle. He is addressing the question of variability within leafy spurge and its potential impact on flea beetle herbivory. One component of Barlow's research consists of measuring the herbivory of leafy spurge plant specimens after introducing adult beetles. Herbivory is the degree of consumption of the plant's leaves and was measured in two different manners. First, Barlow assigned each consumed plant specimen a visual rank from 1 to 5. Second, image processing techniques were applied to "before" and "after" images of each plant specimen in an attempt to more accurately quantify herbivory. Standardized techniques were used to acquire images before and after beetles were allowed to feed on plants for a period of 12 days. Matlab was used as the image processing tool. The image processing algorithm allowed the user to crop the portion of the "before" image containing only plant foliage. Then Matlab cropped the "after" image with the same dimensions, converted the images from RGB to grayscale. The grayscale image was converted to binary based on a user defined threshold value. Finally, herbivory was computed based on the number of black pixels in the "before" and "after" images. The image processing results were mixed. Although, this image processing technique depends on user input and non-ideal images, the data is useful to Barlow's research and offers insight into better imaging systems and processing algorithms.






031: Zhong Yao Cai  2001 Jan;24(1):28-9


[Identification of a confused species of Euphorbia hirta L. E. indica Lam.]


[Article in Chinese]


Chu X, Cao L, Yuan C.


Jiangxi College of TCM, Nanchang, 330006.


The article reported the morphological and histological identification for Euporbia hirta L. and its confused species E. indica Lam. It provided evidences for identifying Euphorbia hirta L..






032: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz  2001 Jan;96(1):123-5


The molluscicidal activity of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae).


Giovanelli A, da Silva CL, Medeiros L, de Vasconcellos MC.


Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brasil.


The use of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an effective control method for Biomphalaria glabrata in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro. However, the appearance and expansion of the snail Melanoides tuberculata since August 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of B. glabrata suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. Depending on the susceptibility of the thiarid to the E. splendens toxin, the natural control that is occurring could be interrupted by the employment of the latex if the planorbid were less susceptible to the toxin. The aim of this study is to investigate the molluscicidal activity of the latex on M. tuberculata. We used 420 M. tuberculata, from Sumidouro. Fourteen different latex concentrations were tested using World Health Organization general methodology. Probit analysis was used for LD90 and LD50 determination. The LD50 was 3.57 mg/l and LD90 was 6.22 mg/l. At the highest concentration (10 mg/l) there was no survival. No significant differences among replicas (chi2 = 8.31; gl = 13; p > 0.05) were found. The LD90 dose for M. tuberculata was 13.8 times greater than that for B. glabrata, so that the molluscicide in the presence of the thiarid may have a synergic effect on reduction of Biomphalaria populations.






033: J Asian Nat Prod Res  2000;2(4):257-61


An isopimarane diterpene from Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata.


Xu ZH, Qin GW, Xu RS.


Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


From the ethanolic extract of the roots of Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata four compounds were isolated. They are 24-methylenecycloartanone, tirucallol, procesterol and a new isopimarane diterpene, namely yuexiandajisu C. The structure of yuexiandajisu C was elucidated by spectral analysis. The bioassay in vitro showed yuexiandajisu C exhibited immunomodulatory activity.






034: J S Afr Vet Assoc  2000 Dec;71(4):240-3


The use of herbal preparations for tick control in western Ethiopia.


Regassa A.


National Animal Health Research Centre, Sebeta, Ethiopia.


Information on the traditional tick control methods used in Keffa, Illubabor and Wellega Provinces in western Ethiopia was obtained from 86 veterinary clinics and 865 peasant farmers through a questionnaire survey. Latexes of Euphorbia obovalifolia and Ficus brachypoda, juice of crushed leaves of Phytolaca dodecandra and Vernonia amygdalina, fruit juice of Solanum incanum, crushed seeds of Lepidium sativum mixed with fresh cattle faeces, juice of crushed leaves and bark of Calpurnea aurea and commercially available spice of Capsicum spp. mixed with butter, were used by peasant farmers to control ticks. Preliminary in vitro efficacy tests of these plant preparations were performed on engorged female Boophilus decoloratus. Preparations of Capsicum spp., E. obovalifolia, S. incanum and F. brachypoda were found to have 30-100% killing effects. Subsequently, in vivo treatment trials of these preparations were conducted using indigenous Bos indicus cattle naturally infested with ticks. Results indicate that treatments at the rate of once per day for 5 consecutive days with the latexes of E. obovalifolia and F. brachypoda can reduce tick burdens by up to 70% on cattle.






035: Inflamm Res  2000 Dec;49(12):732-6


Neutrophil migration and aggregation induced by euphorbin, a lectin from the latex of Euphorbia milii, var. milii.


Dias-Baruffi M, Sakamoto M, Rossetto S, Vozari-Hampe MM, Roque-Barreira MC.



Department of Clinical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.


OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To study the neutrophil migration and aggregation induced by euphorbin, a D-galactose binding lectin from Euphorbia milii var. milli latex.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Euphorbin-induced neutrophil migration was evaluated in vivo and in vitro, in the absence or presence of soluble D-galactose. Neutrophil aggregation induced in vitro by euphorbin was determined by light microscopy.

RESULTS: The neutrophil migration inducing activity of euphorbin was dose-dependent and inhibited by soluble D-galactose. Neutrophil aggregation was rapidly reversed when provoked by 0.1 mg/ml euphorbin. In higher concentrations, euphorbin caused persistent and more extensive neutrophil aggregation.

CONCLUSIONS: Euphorbin induced neutrophil migration through its sugar recognition property. The transitory neutrophil aggregation, induced by a euphorbin quantity similar to that able to cause maximal chemotactic response, is characteristic of homotypic neutrophil adhesion, whereas persistent aggregation, provoked by higher euphorbin quantities, corresponds to cell agglutination by a multivalent lectin.






036: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  2001 Jan;127(1):40-7


Dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens (tumor promoters) in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). V. Skin irritant and tumor-promoting diterpene ester toxins of the tigliane and ingenane type in the herbs Euphorbia nubica and Euphorbia helioscopia contaminating fodder of livestock.


Zayed SM, Farghaly M, Soliman SM, Gotta H, Sorg B, Hecker E.


Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.


Irritant diterpene ester toxins were isolated from Euphorbia nubica and E. helioscopia, which are contaminants of the green fodder of livestock in Egypt. Fractionations of methanol extracts of aerial parts of both plants were monitored by the irritation unit on the mouse ear. Plant extracts were subjected to multiplicative distribution methods, yielding irritant hydrophilic fractions that were further purified by column chromatography. Final purification of the materials was achieved by TLC (silica gel) followed by HPLC, or by TLC alone. In this way, from E. nubica, five Euphorbia factors (Nu1-Nu5) were isolated and characterized as short-chain polyfunctional diterpene esters of tigliane-type parent alcohols. The two weak irritants Nul and Nu3 were triesters of 4-deoxy(4alpha)phorbol. Nu2 was shown to be a triester of the stereoisomeric tigliane-type parent alcohol 4-deoxyphorbol. Weak irritant Nu4 probably is a positional isomer of Nu2. Nu5 was characterized as a short-chain triester of 4,20-dideoxy-5xi-hydroxyphorbol. From E. helioscopia, six short- to medium-chain polyfunctional diterpene esters of the ingenane type, generally containing unsaturated acids were obtained, i.e., four irritant esters of ingenol (Euphorbia factors H1, H2, H5, and H6) and two esters of 20-deoxyingenol (non-irritant Euphorbia substance HS4, and irritant Euphorbia factor H8). All irritant Euphorbia factors of the tigliane and ingenane diterpene ester type described in this investigation are considered to be more or less active tumor promoters, i.e., conditional (non-genotoxic) cancerogens. The Euphorbia factors assayed exhibited moderate (H1) to low (H8) relative tumor-promoting potency in comparison to the ingenane prototype DTE tumor promoter 3-TI.






037: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol  2001 Jan;127(1):34-9


Dietary cancer risk from conditional cancerogens (tumor promoters) in produce of livestock fed on species of spurge (Euphorbiaceae). IV. Toxicologic and pathophysiologic observations in lactating goats and their suckling kids fed on the irritant herbs Euphorbia nubica and Euphorbia helioscopia: an etiologic model for investigations on the putative risk of cancer by consumption of food


Nawito M, Ahmed YF, Shalaby SI, Nada A, Zayed SM, Hecker E.


Department of Animal Reproduction, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.


The feeding of lactating goats on usual green fodder, contaminated with Euphorbia helioscopia or E. nubica, results in poisoning of the dams as well as their suckling kids. General signs of toxicity were emaciation, depression, shedding of body hair, arching of back, and possible death. Post-mortem changes of dams and dead suckling kids included congestion and hemorrhage in cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and kidneys. Blood analyses of goats exposed to these contaminants showed an increased level of serum alanine amino transferase compared to control samples, indicating cellular destruction in the liver. The latter was confirmed by histopathological changes in the organ which include severe congestion, necrosis, and degenerative changes. The goats also suffered from deterioration of renal function as indicated by increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. In histopathologic inspections of kidney, severe congestion, hemorrhage in the cortex and medulla, as well as necrosis of epithelial cells of kidney tubules were noticed. Considerable degenerative changes were also observed in heart and lung. The pathophysiological appearances indicate that by feeding on the Euphorbia species mentioned above, the goats are poisoned in a way similar to the case of E. peplus reported previously. Such intoxication most likely is due to irritant and hyperplasiogenic diterpene ester (DTE) toxins, usually present in the aerial parts of Euphorbia species and well known as tumor promoters in mouse skin. After ingestion of the toxic plant parts by the goats, the DTE toxins might be metabolized and thereby partially detoxified. Yet, at least in part, they may show up in the milk of the goats, as indicated by severe poisoning of their suckling kids. As discussed previously in lactating goats fed on fodder contaminated with E. peplus, tumor promoters of the DTE type may enter the human food chain via this source of milk. Such milk may be considered a valuable etiologic model for the investigation of economic, ecologic, and public health problems raised by human diet polluted with tumor promoters, i.e., conditional (non-genotoxic) cancerogens.






038: Biochem Soc Trans  2000 Dec;28(6):855-7


Characterization of a Euphorbia lagascae epoxide hydrolase gene that is induced early during germination.


Edqvist J, Farbos I.


Department of Plant Biology, SLU, Box 7080, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Johan.Edqvist@vbiol.slu.se


In Euphorbia lagascae the major fatty acid in triacylglycerol is the epoxidated fatty acid vernolic acid (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoic acid). The enzymic reactions occurring during the catabolism of epoxidated fatty acids during germination are not known, but it seems likely that the degradation requires the activity of an epoxide hydrolase. Epoxide hydrolases are a group of functionally related enzymes that catalyse the cofactor-independent hydrolysis of epoxides to their corresponding vicinal diols by the addition of a water molecule. Here we report the cloning and characterization of an epoxide hydrolase gene from E. lagascae. The structure of the gene is unusual since it lacks introns. A detailed investigation of the transcription pattern of the epoxide hydrolase gene shows that the gene is induced during germination. We have used in situ hybridization to identify in which tissues the gene is expressed during germination. We speculate that this epoxide hydrolase enzyme is involved in the catabolism of epoxidated fatty acids during germination of E. lagascae seeds.






039: Biochem Soc Trans  2000 Dec;28(6):703-5


The involvement of phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferases in triacylglycerol production.


Banas A, Dahlqvist A, Stahl U, Lenman M, Stymne S.


Scandinavian Biotechnology Research AB, SE-268 31 Svalov, Sweden. antoni.banas@vv.slu.se


We have characterized three CoA-independent types of enzyme, phospholipases, phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) and cholinephosphotransferases, responsible for the removal of unusual fatty acids from phosphatidylcholine (PC) in microsomal preparations from developing oil seeds. The metabolism of sn-2-[(14)C]acyl-PC was monitored in microsomal preparations from various oilseeds having either medium-chain, acetylenic, epoxy or hydroxy fatty acids as their major fatty acids in the oil. The results indicate that PDAT plays a major role in removing ricinoleic acid and vernolic acid from phospholipids in Ricinus communis and Crepis palaestina seeds, respectively. However, vernolic, crepenynic and capric acids are primarily removed from phospholipids by phospholipases in Euphorbia lagascae, Crepis rubra and elm seeds, respectively. Further, we show that significant PDAT activity is also present in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana.






040: Acta Trop  2001 Jan 15;78(1):23-9


Laboratory evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of some Saudi Arabian euphorbiales against Biomphalaria pfeifferi.


Al-Zanbagi NA, Barrett J, Banaja A.


Department of Biology, King Abdul-Aziz University Saudi Arabia, P.O. Box 42626 21515, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal properties of three Saudi Arabian Euphorbiales. The results showed that the methanol extract of Euphorbia schimperiana has a high molluscicidal potency. The activity remains stable over a wide range of temperature and pH values, in the presence of organic and inorganic substrates and after exposure of the solutions to ultraviolet radiation.






041: Fitoterapia  2000 Dec;71(6):655-62


Anti-inflammatory activity of the hydrosoluble fraction of Euphorbia royleana latex.


Bani S, Kaul A, Jaggi BS, Suri KA, Suri OP, Sharma OP.


Department of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu, India.


The hydrosoluble fraction of Euphorbia royleana latex (AER), administered by gavage at doses of 50-200 mg/kg, showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects in different acute and chronic test models in rats and mice. It reduced the exudate volume and the migration of leukocytes and showed a poor inhibitory effect on the granuloma formation induced by cotton pellets, while it had a low ulcerogenic score. The oral LD(50) was more than 1500 mg/kg in both rats and mice.






042: Parasitol Res  2000 Oct;86(10):843-50


Ultrastructural analysis of Phytomonas species from Euphorbia pinea reveals trans-cytoplasmic filaments 10 nm in diameter.


Page AM, Lagnado JR.


Biomedical Imaging Unit, General Hospital, Southampton, UK. a.page@soton.ac.uk


Phytomonas sp. derived from Euphorbia pinea are digenetic plant trypanosomes that are transmitted by the squashbug Stenocephalus agilis and exist exclusively as promastigotes. The stable sub-pellicular microtubular array, the flagellar axoneme and the paraflagellar rod represent the major cytoskeletal components common to all trypanosomes. The work described in this paper examines in detail the ultrastructural morphology of the organism and highlights a number of novel structural features, and in particular, the presence of some detergent-resistant proteins which take the form of bundles of trans-cytoplasmic filaments of ca. 10 nm in diameter, seen in cells from both log- and stationary-phase cultures. The ultrastructural morphology and immunological cross-reactivity of these filaments are described, and their relationship to filamentous bundles previously reported in stationary-phase cultures of Crithidia fasciculata and to intermediate filaments of animal cells is discussed.






043: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf  2000 Jul;46(3):342-50


Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species.


Oliveira-Filho EC, Paumgartten FJ.


Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, The National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045-900, Brazil.


The toxicity of Euphorbia milii molluscicidal latex and niclosamide (NCL) to target snails (Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila) and nontarget aquatic organisms is evaluated. Planorbidae snails were killed by very low concentrations of lyophilized latex (48-h LC(50), mg/L: B. glabrata, 0.12; B. tenagophila, 0.09; Helisoma duryi, 0.10). Latex was less toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to oligochaeta (Tubifex tubifex, 0.31), planktonic crustacea (Daphnia similis, 0.38; C. dubia, 1.07; Artemia sp., 0.93), and fishes (Danio rerio, 0.96; Poecilia reticulata, 1. 39), and considerably less toxic to Ampullariidae snails (Pomacea sp. , 10.55) and frog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana, 7.50). Latex (up to 100 mg/L) was not toxic to bacteria (P. putida and V. fischeri), algae (Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris), and mosquito larvae (Anopheles albitarsis, Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis). NCL was very toxic (48-h LC(50) or EC(50), mg/L) to Planorbidae snails (B. glabrata, 0.15, B. tenagophila, 0.13; H. duryi, 0.10), T. tubifex (0.11), crustacea (D. similis, 0.19; Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.47; Artemia sp. 0.18), fishes (D. rerio, 0.25; P. reticulata, 0.29), R. catesbeiana (0.16), and Pomacea sp. (0.76). NCL was toxic to bacteria, algae (96-h IC(50), mg/L: S. capricornutum, 0.34; C. vulgaris, 1.23) and slightly toxic to mosquito larvae. In conclusion, E. milii latex, as compared with the reference molluscicide niclosamide, presents a higher degree of selectivity toward snails which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma trematodes. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.






044: J Econ Entomol  2000 Jun;93(3):813-9


Imidacloprid applications by subirrigation for control of silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia.


van Iersel MW, Oetting RD, Hall DB.


Department of Horticulture, Georgia Station, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223-1797, USA.


The objective of this study was to determine whether silverleaf whiteflies, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotsch, can be controlled with imidacloprid applied by subirrigation. Different amounts of imidacloprid uptake by the growing medium were obtained by not watering the subirrigated plants for 0, 1, 2, or 4 d before the imidacloprid application. These treatments resulted in absorption of 12-175 ml of imidacloprid solution by the growing medium. These treatments were compared with untreated control plants and plants that were treated with a standard drench application (100 ml) to the top of the growing medium. All imidacloprid treatments resulted in a significant decrease in both the survival of adult whiteflies and number of immature whiteflies on the plants. Subirrigation treatments resulted in better control of adult and immature whiteflies than drench application. Withholding water for 2 or 4 d before the imidacloprid application by subirrigation improved control of immature whiteflies. This indicates that the application of imidacloprid to poinsettia by subirrigation is a practical and efficient method to control silverleaf whiteflies.






045: J Econ Entomol  2000 Jun;93(3):623-9


An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.


Stevens TJ 3rd, Kilmer RL, Glenn SJ.


Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611-0240, USA.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production.






046: Virology  2000 Jun 5;271(2):289-97


Sequence analysis and genome organisation of poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV) reveal closer relationship to marafiviruses than to tymoviruses.


Bradel BG, Preil W, Jeske H.


Biologisches Institut, Abt. fur Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universitat Stuttgart, Germany.


Sequence comparison and genome organisation of poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV), a putative member of the tymoviruses, revealed a closer relationship to marafiviruses. The complete nucleotide sequence of PnMV was determined. The 6099-nt RNA genome encodes a putative 221-kDa polyprotein that lacks a stop codon between the replicase and the coat protein genes, as in most tymovirus RNAs. The genomic RNA has a poly(A) tail at its 3'-terminus in contrast to the tRNA-like structure found in the RNA of most tymoviruses, and no homology was observed to the conserved noncoding region of the tymoviral 3'-termini. The tymobox of PnMV, a 16-nt region of the subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) promoter shared by most tymoviruses, differs in 3 nt from the RNA sequence of tymoviruses but is identical to the sequence of marafiviruses. At least three sgRNAs were found in PnMV-infected Euphorbia pulcherrima and in isolated PnMV particles; one that is 650 nt long encodes the 21.4-kDa coat protein, and the others are about 3.5 and 1.7 kb and contain the 5'- and the 3'-terminal parts of genomic RNA, respectively. Like tymoviruses, PnMV particles sediment as top and bottom components. The particles of the top component contain the sgRNA (650 nt) encoding the coat protein, and those of bottom component contain both genomic and sgRNAs. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.






047: Planta Med  2000 Apr;66(3):291-4


Diterpenoids from Euphorbia peplus.


Hohmann J, Evanics F, Berta L, Bartok T.


From a pro-inflammatory active extract of Euphorbia peplus, two new diterpene polyesters based on the pepluane and jatrophane skeletons were isolated, together with four known ingenane and jatrophane diterpenes. The structures were determined on the basis of extensive NMR studies. Ingenol 3-angelate, which was obtained for the first time from this plant, is an irritant toxin with high activity.






048: Phytochemistry  2000 Apr;53(8):947-50


Constituents and bioactivity of the tubers of Euphorbia sessiliflora.


Sutthivaiyakit S, Thapsut M, Prachayasittikul V.


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok, Thailand. somyote@raml.ru.ac.th


The diterpene ent-12-hydroxy-12[R]-abieta-8(14),13(15)-dien-16,12-olide was isolated from the tubers of Euphorbia sessiliflora Roxb., together with four known ent-abietadienolides, four known cycloartane triterpenes and ellagic acid-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Two of these metabolates displayed moderate antibacterial activities.








Microstructure of Purified Rubber Particles.


Wood DF, Cornish K.


Purified rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis (Brazilian rubber tree), Parthenium argentatum (guayule), Ficus elastica (Indian rubber tree), and Euphorbia lactiflua were examined and compared using conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field-emission SEM, cryo-SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rubber particles of all four species were spherical; they varied in size and had a uniform homogeneous material, the rubber core, surrounded by a contiguous monolayer (half-unit) membrane. Frozen-hydratedand/or untreated particles from H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum deformed and fused readily, whereas those from F. elastica and E. lactiflua retained their spherical shapes. These results indicate that the surface components of the H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum particles are more fluid than those of F. elastica or E. lactiflua. When fixed in aldehyde, F. elastica particles retained their spherical exterior shapes but had hollow centers, whereas H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum particles completely collapsed. In aldehyde-osmium tetroxide-fixed material, the rubber core of F. elastica was poorly preserved in some particles in which only a small amount of the rubber core remained adhering to the monolayer membrane, leaving a hollow center. Euphorbia lactiflua particles were well preserved in terms of retaining the rubber core; however, the membrane was not as easily discernible as it was in the other three species. Both H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum were well preserved following fixation; their cores remained filled with rubber, and their monolayer membranes were defined. The addition of potassium permanganate to the fixation-staining regime resulted in higher-contrast micrographs and more well defined monolayer membranes.








A Phylogenetic Study of Tribe Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae).


Park KR, Elisens WJ.


A phylogenetic investigation of a monophyletic lineage of spurge plants, tribe Euphorbieae, was conducted to elucidate evolutionary relationships, to clarify biogeographic patterns, and to reexamine the previous classification of Euphorbieae. Cladistic analyses of the 52 morphological characters of 61 species resulted in 2922 equally most parsimonious trees of 193 steps with a consistency index of 0.34. The strict consensus tree indicates genus Anthostema of subtribe Anthosteminae as a likely sister group to all other members of tribe Euphorbieae. The morphological data support a monophyletic origin of subtribe Euphorbiinae, but the subtribes Anthosteminae and Neoquillauminiinae did not form monophyletic groups. Although the previous taxonomic treatments within tribe Euphorbieae have supported the generic status of Pedilanthus, Monadenium, Synadenium, Chamaesyce, and Elaeophorbia, the results of this analysis do not support generic placement of them based on cladistic principles. Recognition of these groups as genera results in Euphorbia becoming a paraphyletic group. One solution to this problem in Euphorbieae is to divide the largest genus Euphorbia into several monophyletic genera and to keep the generic ranks for previously recognized genera. The distribution of basal endemic genera in Euphorbieae showed African and east Gondwanan affinities and strongly indicated that the ancestor of Euphorbieae originated prior to the breakup of Gondwanaland from an old group in Euphorbiaceae. However, some recent African taxa of Euphorbia should be interpreted by transoceanic dispersal from the New World ancestors.





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